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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

plasticity in the nervous system

plasticity in the nervous system   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,654 words
Illustration(s):
6

...by the part of the retina that has been removed (Attardi and Sperry 1963 ). A similar phenomenon of the precise re-establishment of connections is demonstrated when half the tectum is removed ( Gaze and Sharma 1970 ). In this case, it is again only fibres from the appropriate half of the retina that are found to have re-established connections (Fig. 3). This shows, therefore, that the factors controlling the initial re-establishment of the nerve connections are acting in a quite unplastic way; no change results other than that directly attributable to...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism. It is designed to promote good governance within African countries, seen as one of the best ways to prevent domestic political conflicts from leading to coups, insurgency, or civil war. In conclusion, the idea(l) of pan-Africanism has...

Scientists, African

Scientists, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...published in 1967 in the journal Science , arguing that African societies should make scientific attitudes part of their own worldview. The essay attracted considerable attention in Africa, Europe, and America and eventually led to Odhiambo’s central role in the establishment of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi in 1969 . The ICIPE remains one of the most successful scientific institutions on the continent, drawing support from a large group of external donors. Odhiambo went on to help in the creation of...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,185 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in a confessional mode or with pseudo-third person distance, but has the great advantage of speaking in his or her own voice, however contrived. What, of course, separates the literary from the visual portrait is the space and time available to the writer, permitting the establishment of the changing contours of the subject's presence over the years and revealing the transformation of body and spirit. In this regard, the literary portrait is surely more rounded, the multivalent interaction between the subject and his or her contemporaries more fully...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Garvey. The core of Garvey’s nationalist philosophy has been a constant in the African world for hundreds of years. Sometimes, as in the case of Booker T. Washington, it has clothed itself in relatively conservative garb. Washington was, after all, much loved by the types of establishment figures who harassed and jailed Garvey, and eventually deported him from the United States. In Elijah Muhammad’s post-Garvey Nation of Islam, Garveyite ideas appeared in what many may have perceived to be a more outwardly radical organization. Elements of Garvey’s ideas also...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,281 words
Illustration(s):
1

...own taste was the only thing reflected in every aesthetic detail of her costume. Her income, of course, was reflected in its materials. Charles Frederick Worth ( 1825–1895 ), an Englishman who worked for a Parisian dry-goods shop before opening his innovative dressmaking establishment in 1858 , is acknowledged to be the founder of haute couture. This was a new French system whereby the design, construction, and embellishment of a woman's garment and its accessories would be undertaken as a single creation by a named artist. Such an artist would thus...

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...presynapse. The synaptic pathway was thought to be a rectifier, and allow only one-way traffic of the stimulus. It has since been established that there is a parallel increase in the pre-synaptic release of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, which occurs during the establishment of the LTP. Moreover, LTP was prevented by agents (antagonists) which blocked the synaptic action of glutamate at its post-synaptic receptors, showing that these receptors were somehow involved in LTP. Fig. 14. Theories of how the retrograde gaseous neurotransmitter nitric...

Dance

Dance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,170 words
Illustration(s):
1

...proved more fruitful, and today's use of film and video suggests a dance art in which the moving body either assimilates a whole visual environment to its rhythms or is itself dissolved in electronically generated space. What aborted Ménéstrier's demarche was Louis XIV 's establishment of a Royal Academy of Dance to replace the ballets put on by royalty and nobility. The effect of this professionalization was twofold: to depoliticize and aestheticize the most prestigious dance practice, and (explicitly) to establish a dance-based art of dance institutionally...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,487 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of arranging land to support human activity and ecological stability. The profession's development was inextricably tied to a number of important aesthetic theories. Although the organization of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899 marks the official establishment of the profession, its evolution began during the early nineteenth century in the United States and was greatly influenced by eighteenth-century English explorations in landscape art. The general approach to landscape design in England shifted dramatically during the...

Semiotics

Semiotics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,625 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one hand, allegory demonstrates the fundamental polysemous nature of signs. If stories can mean something entirely outside of themselves, then there is no constraint. But take the allegorical interpretations of mythical stories of rape as “really” dealing with tyranny and the establishment of democracy. Intertextual analysis will bluntly refuse such abdication of the meaning imported by the sign: if rape means political tyranny, then the bodily, subjective experience of the woman raped cannot be divorced from the politics at stake. The myth of Lucretia, then, is...

Politics and Aesthetics

Politics and Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
20,958 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(medical, political, aesthetic) of the official AIDS world that climaxed in 1989 when ACT UP stormed the podium at the opening ceremonies of the Montreal International AIDS Conference. The activist demonstrations and art exhibitions at this critical collision of the AIDS establishment with its unorthodox opponents endeavored to shift concern away from artist-centered aesthetic issues toward the complex system of economic and political power relations in which the epidemic was being constructed to profit the institutions supposedly responsible for...

evolution: neo-Darwinian theory

evolution: neo-Darwinian theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,697 words
Illustration(s):
3

...doubling mode of speciation in several ways: no geographical isolation is necessary, accident rather than natural selection is the cause, inbreeding among the descendants of a single individual is necessary, and a new species may arise in a few generations, with the establishment of a population homozygous for the mutation. A second set of arguments in favour of quantum speciation comes from palaeontologists, who generally fail to find evidence of gradual transformation in the fossil record. Instead, fossil species appear suddenly, persist unchanged...

Romanticism

Romanticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,505 words
Illustration(s):
1

...past, neoclassical models of good taste and correctness, while reviving artists of power (William Shakespeare being the prime example) spurned by the neoclassics. The cult of Johann Sebastian Bach , the enthusiasm for early music in general, the primacy of German music, the establishment of a standard concert repertoire based on that primacy, the idea of the musical work as a unified whole intended for performance “as written,” all date from the Romantic period. Hoffmann's “romantic” epithet must consequently be understood, in part, as polemical: it claimed a...

Russian Aesthetics

Russian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,552 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as a whole his aesthetic system transcends the boundaries of Russian religious aesthetics as such. The destiny of the last representatives of Russian religious aesthetics, like that of most of the Russian intelligentsia of the beginning of this century, is tragic. After the establishment of Communist rule, many were deported or forced to emigrate. The ones who stayed in Russia fell victim to repression (e.g., Florensky, who was executed in a Stalinist concentration camp) or were forced to change their occupation (e.g., Losev who devoted himself mainly to the...

Ontology of Art

Ontology of Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the discrepancy between “the emphasis on visual recognition tout court in the notation and the requirements of actually generating dance movements in terms of the dynamics of motor activity controlled proprioceptively” (ibid.). Critics charged that Margolis confused the establishment of the identity of a work with the separate activity of learning how to produce the movements of a certain work or produce them in a particular way. Musical notation explains nothing about how to blow or strike a musical instrument, but that does not render musical notation “a...

Origins of Aesthetics

Origins of Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,340 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to circus performances and other public shows; and that the Académie de Musique and the Académie de Danse, like the projected Académie de Spectacles, were not organizations of distinguished professional artists or scientists, like the other academies, but merely licensed establishments for the regular preparation of public performances. Moreover, an extant paper from the time of Colbert that proposed to consolidate all academies in a single institution makes no clear distinction between the arts and the sciences and lends additional, though indirect,...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,606 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by itself to create a market for them. Within two years of the publication of the inventions, however, each of the chemical processes had been sufficiently changed to permit relatively brief exposures (ranging about ten seconds in diffuse sunlight), and this encouraged the establishment of a commerce in the production of photographic portraits—primarily daguerreotypes. About a decade later, the invention of collodion wet plate photography brought an end to the production of daguerreotypes and prints from Talbot's improved paper negative system. Uniformity of...

Postmodernism

Postmodernism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,688 words
Illustration(s):
1

...foregrounding of surfaces, commitments to transgression and marginality, and treatments of the person stressing unstable, decentered, and multiple selves. The tale of two postmodernisms in poetry begins with the widespread rebellion in the late 1950s against a New Critical establishment that had reduced modernism to a cult of dry, impersonal meditative lyrics intricately balancing passion with ironic distance and suffusing its concern for worldly particulars with an overwhelming sense of mortality. Most of the work that emerged could not be considered...

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