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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of entrepreneurial experimentation. A more detailed analysis of the presses’ output and period of activity would show that a number of cases involved the work of an itinerant printer or of temporary or short-lived establishments. Printers moved in and out of a profession not yet perceived as such, nor yet clearly defined by...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany....

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book Publishing Record . The *Noma Award for Publishing in Africa was established in 1979 , the first award going to the Senegalese author Mariama Bâ, for Une si longue lettre . Landmarks in Francophone book production in the region include the establishment of the journal and publishing house Présence africaine by Alioune...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Brown. The lieutenant-governor’s wife noted in her diary that the French printer Louis Roy did not write good English. Canada’s founding printers shared similar patterns of diversification as booksellers, binders, and stationers. The spread of the press can be mapped by the establishment of newspapers, because most printers in the years before 1840 were also newspaper publishers. Many papers were partisan, some openly political, others allied to a denomination or faction. Government supporters won printing contracts; opponents could face prosecution. In...

The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Two Noble Kinsmen   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,335 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Epilogue). Although both playwrights presumably agreed on the overall structure of the play, it appears from minor discrepancies between their respective shares that they wrote independently of one another, Shakespeare concentrating on the Theseus frame-narrative and the establishment and closure of the Palamon–Arcite plot, Fletcher on the intervening rivalry between Palamon and Arcite and the sub-plot of the Jailer’s Daughter. Sources: The play is primarily a dramatization of Geoffrey Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, the first and one of the most highly regarded...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were already doing. What made the difference was his authority as a nobleman, as an editor, and as an author, who in 1539 received a cardinal’s hat, in modern parlance ‘for services to literature’. Bembo and his fellow theorists were not, however, concerned with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...maps, using copper *plates , and probably techniques, imported from Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...seems to have been more common in Britain than in continental Europe, where the tradition of issuing books in paper wrappers, to be bound to a customer’s specification, continued well into the 20 th century. Before the 19 th century, binderies were typically small establishments run by a master with a handful of assistants (who might be apprentices, journeymen, or members of his family; women were often involved in some of the operations, such as folding and sewing). In France, there was a recognized distinction between forwarders ( relieurs ) and...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the private libraries of members of the upper-level clergy and government officials. In the 18 th century, the production of print in Latin America increased threefold compared to the previous century (in New Spain at least 3,481 titles were published), partly thanks to the establishment of *printing offices in other colonies. Works of religious doctrine and religious instruction continued to dominate, alongside religious chronicles and some historical and literary works. The main novelty of this century, however, was the emergence of the periodical, in the...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Essentially, they were small-scale family businesses. By 1730 the size of typical printing offices had increased, while the biggest firms became very large indeed: *Tonson and Watts, for example, employed over 50 men. In the 1750s , Samuel *Richardson had three such establishments with more than 40 men in each. These were printing and bookselling enterprises, fuelled in part by the growing popularity of the *novel and the 18 th -century *circulating library market. The *Printing Act ( 1662 ) confirmed the main elements of the trade after the...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...in the copying and selling of more functional academic texts. The new impetus was also felt in the northern Netherlands, which for a long time had lagged behind the far more prosperous south. Under the influence of the spiritual renewal of the *Devotio Moderna and the establishment of the court of the Counts of Holland in The Hague, a remarkable regional flowering occurred. In their striving for piety and spirituality, the Devotionalists attached great value to reading and writing and were very active in copying MSS—for their own use as well as on...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...four of them edited by *Novikov . 6 Private printers in Russia In the 1770s , leasing agreements were granted to some non-native printers, and in 1771 J. F. Hartung became the first private printer in Russia—for foreign books only. A 1783 decree permitted the free establishment of presses anywhere within the empire, subject to the *censorship of local police. Half a dozen independent presses sprang up in Moscow, including Lopukhin’s Masonic press, with which Novikov was closely associated. It published some 50 works before being closed down in ...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...on its foundation in 1734 , opened its library every day to staff and students and allowed them to borrow books—from the outset, this library was conceived as a research facility. As the reading habit grew, so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more books. A lending library open to all-comers had been founded in Berlin as early as 1704 , but only somewhat later did these proliferate: Braunschweig had one in 1767 , Hanau 1774 ,...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...trade for generations, such as the Greens of New England and the Bradfords of Pennsylvania and New York. For lack of manufacturing in the colonies, they imported their capital goods (presses, *type , *composing sticks , and other materials) and even their paper, until the establishment of America’s first *paper mill outside Philadelphia in 1690 . Far from London, some Boston and Cambridge printers produced their own *almanacs and other cheap books as early as 1640 , when the *Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in British North America. One...

San Juan de la Peña

San Juan de la Peña   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
164 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Juan de la Peña Built in c. 925 on the flanks of Mount Oroel (Huesca), the monastery of San Juan de la Peña belonged to the patrimony of the kings of Navarre . In 1025 , by the wish of Sancho the Great and Abbot Paternus, it was the first Iberian monastic establishment to accept the Cluniac reform . The influence of Cluny would be decisive in ending the relative isolation in which the church of Spain lived. Thus in 1071 San Juan de la Peña adopted the Roman ritual, destined to replace the Mozarabic liturgy which then prevailed throughout the...

San Millan de la Cogolla

San Millan de la Cogolla   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
150 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Millan de la Cogolla It was during the 10th c. that the kings of Navarre built the monastery of San Millan de la Cogolla close to the hermitage of Suso (Logroño) that held the remains of St Emiliano, evangelizer of the Rioja. Situated in a contested area, the establishment played a strategic role against Castile . Richly endowed, it safeguarded its influence by appropriating the relics of St Emiliano in 1030 . Transferred to Yuso in 1053 , soon afterwards the monastery came under Castilian rule. Its spiritual and cultural influence, nourished by the...

Alcobaça

Alcobaça   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
166 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and to ensure the development of lands recently taken from the Muslims. Indeed, it was mainly from the 13th c. that Cistercian colonization reached its full extent. From then on the abbey 's political and cultural role did not cease to grow. We know nothing of the original establishment, which was destroyed by the Almohades in 1190 . The present edifice (Alcobaça II) is the exact replica of Clairvaux, with the same orientation of the church, and the same arrangement of conventual buildings. The cloister of silence at the monastery of Santa Anna at...

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