You are looking at 1-10 of 26 entries  for:

  • All : atheism x
  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Overview

atheism

Subject: Religion

The theory or belief that God does not exist. The word comes (in the late 16th century, via French) from Greek atheos, from a- ‘without’ + theos ‘god’.

Atheism and Agnosticism

Atheism and Agnosticism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Agnosticism . Atheism in the modern world has both theoretical and practical manifestations, and developed mainly in reaction to Christian theology. The word has meant different things at different times: bad behavior, scoffing at holy things, irreligion, wrong religion (as in the controversies among Christians that followed the Reformation), or a well-thought-out rejection of God and religion. In the West, atheism is usually a rejection of God as understood in Christianity. Western European societies traditionally feared and hated “atheism” and...

Madrasahs in Bukhara and Samarkand

Madrasahs in Bukhara and Samarkand   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
639 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Samarkand, c. 1619–1636. Photograph by Joachim Gierlichs / Image Archive Das Bild des Orients, Berlin The importance of madrasahs in Bukhara and Samarkand as centers of Islamic learning greatly declined and many were closed in the twentieth century due to the Soviet policy of atheism and the ensuing secularism of the society between the 1920s and 1990s. Bibliography Abazov, Rafis . Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Bartold, Vasilii . Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion . New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal...

Memorials and Commemoration

Memorials and Commemoration   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

...curriculums were rewritten, research centers were established, state publishing houses were founded, new encyclopedias were published, and books and documents were censored and purged. Museums were established to assure an orthodox past, none as expressive as Soviet museums of atheism located in former Orthodox churches. Dissenting Memory and Critical History. Totalitarianism made the greatest and most systematic attempt of the nation-state to capture the mind and control the memory of all society. In contradistinction, throughout modern and contemporary...

Papacy

Papacy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,069 words
Illustration(s):
1

...atheistic, deriding the papacy as a surpassed institution that would be soon destroyed by the need for reason, not faith. They were all strongly condemned and their writings banned by the Catholic hierarchy, but it is undeniable that their ideas raised a wave of agnosticism and atheism throughout Europe. Nonetheless, the French Revolution proved perhaps to be the greatest threat to the papacy. The confiscation of church property of 1789 was only the beginning of a ferocious attack on the spiritual and temporal powers of the pope, which culminated in 1798 ...

Albania

Albania   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,633 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and who in 1967 declared Albania the world 's first atheist state. No reliable numbers are available, but experts say the religious composition of Albania 's 3.5 million people is roughly the same as before World War II and immediately after Hoxha 's 1967 decree on atheism: 71 percent Muslim, 29 percent Christian—further broken down as 55 percent Sunnī Muslim, 16 percent Bektāshī (of which about 5 percent are Shīʿī), 19 percent Orthodox Christian, and 10 percent Roman Catholic. Albania 's Muslims have traditionally been divided into two ethnic...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,361 words
Illustration(s):
1

...now merely of historical or literary importance—figures such as Denis Diderot ( 1713–1784 ) and Voltaire ( 1694–1778 ). Or they survive as political philosophers, like Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( 1712–1778 ). Although theoretical issues of rationalism, science, materialism, or atheism figured in all their thinking, most of these people saw their purpose as political, and the principal effect of the movement is widely believed to be the French Revolution of 1789 . By then there had already been another revolution, the American, in which the influence of French...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,245 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Latin alphabets and introduced a newly adapted Cyrillic script for all languages. This facilitated the learning of Russian, but it also eliminated the possibility for the development of a pan-Turkic literature. In the late 1920s a propaganda campaign was launched against Islam. Atheism was promoted, and Islam was depicted as a reactionary religion that humiliated women and was intolerant and xenophobic. In 1927 all traditional Muslim courts were closed. In 1928 all Qur᾽anic schools were banned. All religious endowments ( waqf ) were abolished in 1930 ....

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,019 words
Illustration(s):
2

...regardless of the historical process by which the written text developed. A further challenge to conventional Jewish theological discourse has been thrown up after the Holocaust by the increasingly common rejection of the idea of a covenant and personal relationship with God. Atheism was already a marked feature of European Jewish life in the early twentieth century, particularly on the political left among working-class east Europeans. By the 1930s, Reconstructionist circles, inspired by New York Conservative Mordecai Kaplan ( 1881–1983 ), rejected the...

Victorianism

Victorianism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,922 words
Illustration(s):
1

...most influential and revered thinkers, Thomas Carlyle , was vehemently antidemocratic. In Past and Present ( 1843 ), a book he wrote in seven weeks in the heat of responding to working-class uprisings in industrial centers, Carlyle argued that democracy institutionalizes the “atheism” of laissez-faire economics. Carlyle's antidemocratic attitude was later reflected in Victorian intellectuals of both conservative and liberal orientations, such as John Ruskin , Matthew Arnold , George Eliot , and Elizabeth Gaskell . Even John Stuart Mill , who in On...

Morocco

Morocco   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,008 words
Illustration(s):
1

...spread, so did the Salafī conception of Islam. See Fāsī, Muhammad ʿAllāl al- ; Istiqlāl ; and Salafīyah . Fundamentalist Movements. In 1969 , Abd al-Karīm Mutiʿ founded the “Islamic Youth” (shabībah islāmīyah), an underground political movement that defined itself against atheism, more particularly leftist groups on university campuses. The group was influenced ideologically by the writings of Egyptian Sayyid Qutb. It had a military arm as well as an association, the association of the Islamic Youth that was authorized by the monarchy in 1972 . The...

View: