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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

GUlag

GUlag   Reference library

Akashi Yoji, Norman Davies, and Robert Service

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...GUlag system, calculated that the death rate from malnutrition, disease, and exhaustion during the war years reached 1% per day. It was not unusual for those few prisoners who served their term to be refused release on the grounds that they were a fortiori the most useful workers. Most camp prisoners underwent a worsening of their conditions after Germany's invasion of the USSR on 22 June 1941 ( see BARBAROSSA ). Hitler's occupation of Ukraine and parts of the Volga region created difficulties of food supplies: and the GUlag population was compelled to...

Aristophanes

Aristophanes (c.450–c.388bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Cleon's father Cleaenetus was based. That Aristophanes had a basic familiarity with Socrates and his ideas is apparent from Clouds , but the effect of the play depends on the fact that the same could be said of most average Athenians at the time. On the other hand the image in Plato's Symposium of the two men as friends is best understood as part of Plato's attempt to control and improve Socrates’ image in the years after his execution in 399 and should not be taken seriously. A fortiori, responsibility for the contents of the long speech attributed...

Ancient Near Eastern Law

Ancient Near Eastern Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
8,416 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by the gods. (Even the Egyptian ruler, who was regarded as a god, was only a junior god, subject to the greater deities.) In return for royal authority, the king had to fulfill the divine mandate imposed upon him—essentially, to provide his people with security, prosperity, and justice. Justice demanded upholding the traditional legal order and intervening to ensure equity where abuse or even strict imposition of the law resulted in injustice. A king who failed to do justice (and a fortiori one who acted illegally or oppressively himself) would be...

Torture

Torture   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
8,275 words
Illustration(s):
2

...arose as a result of the evidentiary burdens involved in the prosecution of the hudūd . In the absence of the defendant's voluntary confession ( iqrār ), conviction generally required credible ( ʿadl ) eyewitness testimony to convict the defendant, a requirement that was very difficult to meet. Even in the case of a voluntary confession to a hadd crime, the defendant was within his rights to withdraw the confession and thereby avoid conviction and the legal punishment, although not, as mentioned above, the monetary liability. A fortiori , a confession...

Islamic Schools of Sacred Law

Islamic Schools of Sacred Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
12,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of qiyās , such as reductio ad absurdum and arguments a fortiori. Reports transmitted through a single chain by authorities with a record of moral integrity were held to provide certainty, so Zahiri jurisprudence relied heavily on hadith. The opinions of the companions of the Prophet were fallible individually, and so were unacceptable as legal proof on their own, but a consensus ( ijmāʿ ) of the Prophet's companions was binding because it was presumed to discover the Prophet's opinion. The unanimous agreement of later generations, however, was not taken...

Just

Just   Reference library

Mark Lindley

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,496 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of performing in various tuning systems, that musicians, unlike other listeners, heard the difference between equal and mean-tone temperaments, giving preference to the latter, ‘and a fortiori the just intonation, but only in broad terminating chords and for choral-like music. However, they . . . do not like the pitch fluctuations caused by instantaneously corrected thirds’. According to McClure (‘Studies in Keyboard Temperaments’, GSJ , i, 1948, 28–40), George Bernard Shaw recalled that in the 1870s the progressions of pure concords on Bosanquet’s...

Limits of Translation, The

Limits of Translation, The   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
2

...on any given translation task (or, a fortiori , ‘all translation’, ‘true translation’, ‘translation proper’, ‘translation in itself’) is inevitably arbitrary. It is also that the sorites series itself, the series of numbered steps, is arbitrary as well. The shift from E6 to E7 above, which adds italics to mole to indicate that it is a foreign word and thus probably not the burrowing rodent, is small enough and subtle enough to remind us that there are infinite gradations between alternatives that this one-word-at-a-time method represses. Minute shifts in...

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