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J. M. W. Turner

(1775—1851) landscape and history painter

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aerial perspective

aerial perspective  

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A term applied to (i) the atmospheric effect whereby distant landscape features look more hazy and bluish than near ones, and (ii) the imitation of this effect in painting. Dust and moisture ...
Alexander Cozens

Alexander Cozens  

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(b Russia, ?1717; d London, 23 Apr. 1786).English landscape draughtsman. Cozens was one of the first major British artists to work exclusively as a landscapist and he helped to bring intellectual ...
Antonio Pitloo

Antonio Pitloo  

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(1791–1837).Dutch painter working in Italy. Pitloo was born in Arnhem and studied there (1803–7) before winning a scholarship to study architecture in Paris. Whilst in Paris (1808–11) he also ...
bodycolour

bodycolour  

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Paint that is opaque rather than transparent. The term usually refers to opaque watercolour, which is also known as gouache.
Cambridge, Mass., William Hayes Fogg Museum of Art

Cambridge, Mass., William Hayes Fogg Museum of Art  

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Founded in 1891 by a bequest of $200,000 to Harvard University from Elizabeth P. Fogg in memory of her husband, a very successful merchant. A building designed by Richard Morris ...
cave

cave  

A large, natural, underground hollow, usually with a horizontal opening. Karst caves result from solution and corrosion; see Miller (2006) GSA Special Paper 404.
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg

Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg  

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(b Blakrog, Southern Jutland, 2 Jan. 1783; d Copenhagen, 22 July 1853).Danish painter. He was one of the leading figures in his country's art in the first half of the 19th century, and is sometimes ...
Claude Lorrain

Claude Lorrain  

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(1600–82)Landscape painter from Lorraine, who worked mainly in Rome. He was the first artist to be inspired by the Roman Campagna and its legends. Many 18th‐century English travellers on ...
Cleveland Museum of Art

Cleveland Museum of Art  

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Cleveland enjoyed great prosperity at the end of the 19th and in the early 20th centuries. The wills of civic-minded individuals, Hinman Hurlbut, John Huntington, and Horace Kelly, provided for ...
colour prints and coloured prints

colour prints and coloured prints  

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From the earliest times woodcuts were issued with bright simple colouring, sometimes applied through stencils. By the Renaissance however, many artists, such as Dürer, abjured colour, while others ...
David Dabydeen

David Dabydeen  

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Literature
(1956– ),Guyanese‐born poet and novelist, educated at Cambridge and at University College London. Among several academic posts, he became a lecturer at the University of Warwick. Recurrent themes in ...
Dr Thomas Monro

Dr Thomas Monro  

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(b London, 29 June 1759; d Bushey, Hertfordshire, 14 Feb. 1833).English collector, patron, and amateur painter, a physician by profession. He played an important role in encouraging some of ...
English art

English art  

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1. PaintingThe history of English art before the 18th century is essentially that of a provincial style, constantly looking abroad for inspiration and influence and only notable for the ...
exhibitions

exhibitions  

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The temporary display in a given location of a selection of artworks or artefacts. The very first exhibitions of *‘Old Masters’ were held in Rome and Florence in the 17th century. By the 19th century ...
Francis Danby

Francis Danby  

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(b Common, nr. Wexford, 16 Nov. 1793; d Exmouth, Devon, 10 Feb. 1861).Irish-born painter, active in England. He worked mainly in Bristol and London, but between 1830 and 1838, owing to financial and ...
Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse  

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(b Le Cateau-Cambrésis, 31 Dec. 1869; d Nice, 3 Nov. 1954)French painter and stage designer. He designed two ballets for Massine: The Song of the Nightingale (1920) and Rouge et noir (1939). His ...
Hudson River School

Hudson River School  

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Term applied retrospectively to a number of American landscape painters, active c.1825–c.1875, who were inspired by pride in the beauty of their homeland. The early leaders and the three most ...
James Thomson

James Thomson  

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Literature
(1700–48),born at Ednam on the Scottish border, came to London in 1725, and wrote ‘Winter’, the first of The Seasons, which appeared successively in 1726–30. He made the acquaintance of Arbuthnot, ...
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe  

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(1749–1832),spent most of his life in Weimar, occupying positions of increasing importance in the government until 1786. In 1791 he was appointed director of the Weimar court theatre, a post he held ...
John Constable

John Constable  

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(b East Bergholt, Suffolk, 11 June 1776; d Hampstead, Middlesex [now in London], 31 Mar./1 Apr. 1837).English painter, ranked with his contemporary Turner as one of the two greatest figures in the ...

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