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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Aboriginal politics (historical)

Aboriginal politics (historical)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,736 words

...to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association's motto went unnoticed by historians until very recently, when research by Indigenous historian John Maynard (grandson of Fred Maynard ) revealed the extent of Garvey's influence on the AAPA. This new research dispels the long‐held misconception that the early Aboriginal political movement was both unsophisticated and Christian– (or white–) influenced. The AAPA was to be a significant influence on the ideas and activities of the next generation of activists and organisations that emerged in...

Africa, Portuguese-speaking

Africa, Portuguese-speaking   Reference library

Luis B. Serapiao

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
903 words

...legal constraints, corruption, administrative barriers, poor labor productivity, public-administration inefficiencies, weak legal and judiciary systems, inadequate infrastructure, lack of finance, small-market challenges, smuggling, and theft. To the extent Mozambique can dispel these impediments, its economy could grow even more significantly. This short work would not be complete without mentioning President Chissano's attempt, within his framework of economic reform, to reduce absolute poverty within the country. In the early 1990s, Chissano ordered a...

Britain–Australia

Britain–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,925 words

...until the 1990s did the Australian Labor Party (‐ see ALP ) make an issue of republicanism . Indeed, Malcolm Fraser was probably correct to advise a London audience in 1977 that they ‘not pay too much heed to stories about republicanism in Australia’. Fraser did much to dispel Britishness to the backblocks of Australian political culture. Putting flesh on the multicultural bones meant dismembering the old British corpse of ‘white Australia’ and ending what he termed the ‘days of Anglo-Saxon conformity’. Multiculturalism quickly and quietly relegated...

China

China   Reference library

Wei-Chin Lee

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,604 words

...pragmatism usually prevailed, yielding an overall forward trajectory. Even in the wake of the brutal suppression of the 1989 Tiananmen Square pro-democracy demonstration, Deng remained steadfast by declaring that “development is the only hard truth” in the early 1990 s to dispel any doubt of China ’s quest for economic transition and growth. China continued its extraordinary growth trajectory in the 1990 s and the 2000 s, with an average growth of over 10 percent per year until the second half of 2008 , when the world economy was hindered by the...

Common Sense

Common Sense   Reference library

Willi Paul Adams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
359 words

...was published in February by the Philadelphia printers Melchior Steiner and Carl Cist . This wide distribution, together with newspaper excerpts, made Common Sense the single most influential pamphlet of the Revolutionary War. In rousing agitator’s rhetoric, Paine dispelled as a myth the “balanced,” liberty-protecting char- acter of the British constitution. Hereditary monarchy and aristocracy were absurd, Paine argued, and irreconcilable with the natural equality of human beings. The colonists could not seriously hope for a permanent...

Environmental Knowledge, Traditional

Environmental Knowledge, Traditional   Reference library

Kamala Platt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,812 words

...and Latino communities face an inordinate number of environmental justice concerns and other effects of environmental racism, the environmental justice movement’s response to these concerns in the last decade of the twentieth century offers primary, contemporary evidence to dispel the myths that their cultures put little value on their natural environment. Environmental Justice In the 1980s, research and activism from scholars and community workers of color identified “environmental racism” as a phenomenon impacting Latino and Latina as well as African...

Ethics, Justice, and Security

Ethics, Justice, and Security   Reference library

Anthony F. Lang, Jr.

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,251 words

...in the last few years ( Dershowitz 2002 ; Levinson 2004 ; Greenberg and Dratel 2005 ; Brecher 2007 ). Some have argued that to justify any form of violence with formal ethical analysis makes it more acceptable and is thus, in itself, wrong. This essay has hopefully dispelled this false notion. If ethics is simply about developing rules that outlaw various kinds of things, then it may be that ethical reflection on war should go back to the sixth Commandment – Do not kill. But, if ethical reflection is more than simply finding laws but also includes...

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment   Reference library

Sonalini Sapra

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,076 words

...rested on access to land, as well as other forms of capital and resources for livelihood security in both long-and short-term contexts ( Rocheleau and Edmunds 1997 ). Analyzing women's environmental struggles around the world, other scholars have used the FPE approach to dispel neo-Malthusian myths about environmental degradation, population, and security. For example, Lucy Jarosz uses an FPE approach to analyze Eko Okoko's article on women and environmental change in the Niger Delta. In the primary article, Okoko interviews 100 Ibeno women who are the...

The History of International Studies

The History of International Studies   Reference library

Brian C. Schmidt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,176 words

...in the existing gaps. The past 10 years have seen enormous progress in gaining a better understanding of the history of the field. The new research has helped to legitimate disciplinary history as a valid and necessary research activity. There is still much work to be done to dispel the many myths that continue to circulate about how the field has developed. Yet as new research and literature on the history of IR is put forth, it will be increasingly difficult to intellectually defend the misconceptions that have been cast on the field’s past. Brian C...

Honecker, Erich

Honecker, Erich (25 Aug. 1912)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
660 words

...German Social Democrats, and his arrogance towards the Soviet Union. He sought, and gained, Soviet blessing for the removal of Ulbricht as SED first secretary in 1971 . He was then unanimously elected to that office, which he occupied until October 1989 . Honecker sought to dispel his austere image. For a time he allowed more freedom in the arts. In 1976 he also announced a mass of social welfare measures designed to increase the birth rate. He followed the Soviet line on détente with West Germany, which paved the way for mutual recognition by the two...

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