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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Aboriginal politics (historical)

Aboriginal politics (historical)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,736 words

...to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association's motto went unnoticed by historians until very recently, when research by Indigenous historian John Maynard (grandson of Fred Maynard ) revealed the extent of Garvey's influence on the AAPA. This new research dispels the long‐held misconception that the early Aboriginal political movement was both unsophisticated and Christian– (or white–) influenced. The AAPA was to be a significant influence on the ideas and activities of the next generation of activists and organisations that emerged in...

Africa, Portuguese-speaking

Africa, Portuguese-speaking   Reference library

Luis B. Serapiao

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
903 words

...legal constraints, corruption, administrative barriers, poor labor productivity, public-administration inefficiencies, weak legal and judiciary systems, inadequate infrastructure, lack of finance, small-market challenges, smuggling, and theft. To the extent Mozambique can dispel these impediments, its economy could grow even more significantly. This short work would not be complete without mentioning President Chissano's attempt, within his framework of economic reform, to reduce absolute poverty within the country. In the early 1990s, Chissano ordered a...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,621 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the agricultural sectors in the Tropical Asian countries, particularly in Bangladesh and Indonesia, where huge increases in population have created enormous economic and nutritional pressures. The specter of mass hunger caused by insufficient land resources has been dispelled by the so-called Green Revolution brought about by new, higher-yielding rice technologies. Rice yields indeed increased in Bangladesh by 47 percent per hectare between 1961–1965 and 1987–1991 , and in the same period by 133 percent in Indonesia. In both countries the area of...

Angell, Norman

Angell, Norman (1872–1967)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,515 words

...the famous dismissal of honour put into the mouth of Sir John Falstaff. Neither Angell or any other political economist can ‘refute’ such codes of honour. Indeed, Angell was careful to point out that he did not regard economic rivalries as the only cause of war, but wanted to dispel them as a contributory factor. Nor was he worried by the assertion that ‘you can’t change human nature’. He did not dispute this, but argued that human behaviour could be changed by the equivalent of a Hobbesian sovereign in international affairs. He gave numerous instances where...

Annales Gandenses

Annales Gandenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...for the Flemings. Yet he did not absolve his fellow citizens of their excesses as they eagerly mopped up the battlefield at Courtrai by killing all the French they could, regardless of social status. As the annalist records, the massive defeat of French arms at Courtrai did not dispel King Philip IV’s ire against the region. In spite of the French loss in 1302 , Philip moved against Flanders in 1304 . The annalist again provides crucial details but a skewed conclusion for the resulting battle at Mons-en-Pèvéle; all the contemporary sources and modern...

Anthropology in Africa

Anthropology in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...civil turmoil throughout much of the continent—remain a serious consideration and potential impediment to future expansion. As one of the first and one of the most active academic disciplines concerned with studying African affairs, anthropology has had much to do with dispelling the mythic notions of an Africa that did not exist except in the minds of outsiders. There remains much to learn about Africa's ever-changing present, both in its local and national forms and in its global connections. The old ethnographies are now read critically, but they...

Appeasement

Appeasement   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,704 words

...has proven problematic. Cursory references to peace movement culpability often preface studies that in fact find other factors to be primarily at fault. Briefly dissecting the interwar peace movement’s views on aggression, armaments, and German power is the first step in dispelling the mythology surrounding appeasement. The peace movement of the 1920s and much of the 1930s opposed British rearmament and believed the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, especially the German reparations clauses forced by France, to be untenable and unjust. Instead, most...

Assassins

Assassins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...as a common noun meaning a professional murderer. The etymology of the name “Assassins” was eventually correctly explained by the orientalists of the nineteenth century. Modern scholarship in Ismaili studies, based on authentic Ismaili sources, has now begun to deconstruct and dispel the medieval legends surrounding the Nizaris. It has also shown that the name “Assassins” is a misnomer rooted in a pejorative appellation and lacking basis in any communal or organized use of hashish by the Nizari Ismailis, who were deeply devoted to their community. [ See also ...

BARTLETT, Elisha

BARTLETT, Elisha (1804–1855)   Reference library

Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who advocated and successfully employed empiricism rather than metaphysical speculation in medicine. Bartlett dedicated the book to one of the leaders of this new movement, Louis, the originator of rigorously quantitative methods in medical research, and famous as the dispeller of the dangerous and ineffective therapeutics of François Joseph Victor Broussais . Louis and Bartlett urged not only careful observation of clinical presentations, which had been the norm in medicine since Hippocrates, but also careful collection and numerical analysis of data...

♂ Běi Dǎo

♂ Běi Dǎo (1949)   Reference library

Dian LI

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Bei Dao recalls, is an accident that happened to him. He would not have become a poet if not for his experience with bricks and cement. Young and restless, yet stuck in a back-breaking job that taxed his body and soul, Bei Dao found writing down lines of words a convenient way to dispel the feelings of boredom and despair. The lines of words accumulated to become poems, soon to be shared with a few poetry-loving friends from his high school days. The circle of friends grew and formed a sort of “underground poetry club” that included aspiring young poets such as...

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