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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

albariño

albariño   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...which means literally in Spanish ‘white (wine) from the Rhine’. It was probably brought to Spain in the twelfth century by Cluniac monks, and may well be a clone of the riesling grape. Its fresh, fragrant style helped considerably towards the end of the twentieth century in dispelling the negative image of Spanish white wines as heavy, over-oaked, and often...

Medieval Climatic Optimum

Medieval Climatic Optimum   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...epoch is discussed by Grove ( 1996 ). Some recent tree ring analyses for Fennoscandia by Briffa et al. ( 1990 ), however, have failed to find any unambiguous evidence for this warm phase, or for very extended runs of warm years. They conclude (p. 438) that their reconstruction “dispels any notion that summers in Fennoscandia were consistently warm throughout that period. Although the second half of the twelfth century was very warm, the first half was very cold. For most of the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, summers were near normal (relative to the mean...

Medieval Climate Optimum

Medieval Climate Optimum   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...closely with warm wet years ( Li et al., 2006 ). However, some recent tree-ring analyses for Fennoscandia by Briffa et al. ( 1990 ) have failed to find unambiguous evidence for this warm phase or for extended warm periods. They conclude (p. 438) that their reconstruction “dispels any notion that summers in Fennoscandia were consistently warm throughout that period. Although the second half of the twelfth century was very warm, the first half was very cold. For most of the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, summers were near normal (relative to the mean...

Punctuated Equilibrium

Punctuated Equilibrium   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...timings in the microevolutionary origin of species, since punctuated equilibrium emerges as the expected scaling of conventional speciation in geological time? We may at least assert that punctuated equilibrium had strong and salutary benefits for paleontological practice in dispelling the lethargy that had enveloped a field taught to regard its primary observations as an artifact of an imperfect record, hiding an invisible reality of gradualism. In the most immediately practical sense, punctuated equilibrium defined the phenomenon of stasis as an important...

Phylogenetic Inference

Phylogenetic Inference   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
10,174 words
Illustration(s):
4

...This paper combines Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods with comparative method, to study the evolution of lichen formation. Nixon, K. C. , and J. M. Carpenter . “ On Outgroups. ” Cladistics 9 (1993): 413–426. An excellent review of the outgroup method. The authors also dispel some common misconceptions about rooting trees, outgroups, and polarity. Ou, C. Y. , C. A. Ciesielski , G. Myers , C. I. Bandea , C. C. Luo , B. T. Korber , J. I. Mullins , G. Schochetman , R. L. Berkelman , A. N. Economou , et al. “ Molecular Epidemiology of HIV...

Scientists’ Views about Public Engagement and Science Communication in the Context of Climate Change

Scientists’ Views about Public Engagement and Science Communication in the Context of Climate Change   Reference library

John Besley and Anthony Dudo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...move as a shift in priorities away from teaching as a communication tactic with the objective of increasing knowledge toward objectives that might be possible from meaningful dialogue between scientists and nonscientists. Objective: Science Knowledge Increasing knowledge and dispelling myths have long been the aims of scientists who choose to communicate ( Burnham, 1987 ). However, while the science education literature (e.g., Lederman, Bartos, & Lederman, 2014 ) continues to focus on increasing knowledge of science-related facts and processes, a wide...

Strategic Framing and Persuasive Messaging to Influence Climate Change Perceptions and Decisions

Strategic Framing and Persuasive Messaging to Influence Climate Change Perceptions and Decisions   Reference library

Toby Bolsen and Matthew A. Shapiro

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and produced boomerang effects among polarized partisans. And, also in a similar line of research, Kahan et al. ( 2011 ) conducted a study to test the hypothesis that cultural cognition theory driven by directional motivated reasoning explains the failure of expert consensus to dispel public controversy over the issues of climate change, nuclear waste storage, and gun rights. They conducted a nationally representative survey experiment in the United States and varied attributions of a “low risk” or “high risk” frame on each issue to one of three featured...

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement   Reference library

Julia B. Corbett and Brett Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...worldview even shapes the responses of individuals who are concerned about climate and other environmental issues. The individualistic culture encourages shopping as a solution, rather than organizing as communities for reform and change. Overall, research has largely dispelled the “information deficit” model of climate change communication ( Nisbet & Scheufele, 2009 ; Sturgis & Allum, 2004 ); studies have even found that more knowledge can hinder behavior change ( Gardener & Stern, 2002 ; Kahlor & Rosenthal, 2009 ). Additionally, typical one-way...

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators   Reference library

Michael Lamb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...cognitive conceptions of practical reason that downplay the influence of emotions and thereby leave climate communicators without adequate conceptual resources to evaluate and motivate persuasive communication. Committed Kantians, however, still have one resource that might dispel these worries and offer a more nuanced approach to climate communication: the distinction between categorical and hypothetical imperatives . While Kant argued that moral actions must be based on the “categorical imperative” and not violate this a priori principle, he...

Strategies for Countering False Information and Beliefs about Climate Change

Strategies for Countering False Information and Beliefs about Climate Change   Reference library

R. Kelly Garrett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...it. Separating climate change knowledge from social identity is no small task given the extreme ideological polarization evident in the climate change debate today ( Leiserowitz et al., 2014 ). In Kahan’s words, “It would be glib to say ‘that’s all communicators have to do’ to dispel polarization over climate science. It is what they have to do. But how to do this is far from obvious” ( 2015 , p. 30). He recommends that science communicators, educators, and public opinion scholars distinguish between (a) beliefs about climate change and (b) knowledge of what...

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