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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,017 words

...on false charges. Senior police officials frequently threaten to wipe out activists, and sometimes, these threats are carried out. In large measure, it was concern with international opinion that led India to establish the NHRC in September 1993 . The government was keen to dispel the notion that it was not serious about human rights abuse and wanted to project a positive image at the United Nations ( UN ) and other international forums. The aims and functions of the commission are quite extensive: it can virtually investigate any case of rights...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,584 words

...report. On the next occasion, in 1987 , there was once again no consultation, and the Japanese human rights NGOs saw the report only after it was published by the UN. However, this did give them time to produce and submit counterreports, twelve in all. This did nothing to dispel the impression held by many that Japan was at best a reluctant participant in the international human rights regime. Some ascribed this to a lack of cultural sympathy with concepts of rights, although the government has never formally endorsed the “Asian values” agenda, which...

Media

Media   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,050 words

...forces, the Taliban began to use sophisticated messages to convince Afghan citizens that it still held power. Using Web sites, magazines, audiocassettes, DVDs, pamphlets, and other nontraditional media such as mobile phones, Taliban leaders circulated nationalist messages to dispel any potential belief on the part of the public that the newly installed government would endure. The Nazis famously used propaganda to seize and maintain power in Germany prior to and during World War II. Through leaflets, films, magazine articles, speeches, art, and even...

Nongovernmental Organizations

Nongovernmental Organizations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
15,116 words

...can be a productive source of changes in strategy. However, it is possible to oversimplify reality by portraying NGOs as part of a seamless web of harmonious interests and shared goals that can be expected to result in progress over time. While empirical observation is likely to dispel such an oversimplification fairly quickly, as study of NGO activities on human rights has continued, studies of the nature of NGOs’ interrelationships with one another have explored the politics within advocacy networks. Studies have continued to explore how NGOs work together,...

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...the patrimony of humanity at large, should be left untouched by national or political passion. 3. Members of P.E.N. should at all times use what influence they have in favor of good understanding and mutual respect between nations; they pledge themselves to do their utmost to dispel race, class, and national hatreds and to champion the ideal of one humanity living in peace in one world. 4. P.E.N. stands for the principle of unhampered transmission of thought within each nation and between all nations, and members pledge themselves to oppose any form of...

South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,897 words

...and that perseverance would bear fruit, and the regime brought the full weight of the state's repressive apparatus to crush opposition to its policies. By the same token, however, the military's freedom from societal pressures and exclusionary policy making made it difficult to dispel the link between government policies and the worsening economic crisis. In March and April 1980 several of the country's most important banks collapsed as indebted industries could not repay their loans, unleashing panic and depositor withdrawals. After four years of solid...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...this crisis would avert a return to fighting by the LTTE, and that the coordination between the government and LTTE necessary to deliver humanitarian aid in the north and east might act as a confidence-building measure, drawing the LTTE back into formal peace discussions and dispelling historical enmity. The tsunami's aftermath, however, became a failed opportunity because of the mistrust among communities throughout the nation. The proposed coordination mechanism, the Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), for humanitarian aid delivery in...

United States

United States   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
22,172 words

...Indeed, the development of the 1941 Atlantic Charter as the clear articulation of the Allies’ war aims suggested that, finally, human rights, not white supremacy, would be the foundation of a new world order. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, however, quickly set out to dispel that notion. Before Parliament, he explained that the Atlantic Charter's “Four Freedoms” were intended only for those Europeans laboring under Nazi rule—not the Asians, Africans, and West Indians under the flag of the British Empire. Yet, no matter how hard Churchill tried to...

Universal Jurisdiction

Universal Jurisdiction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,926 words

...could, in fact, be extradited. Despite this ruling, and presumably because of his failing health, Pinochet was allowed to return to Chile. Although he was never ultimately extradited, the House of Lords decision reaffirmed the principle of universal jurisdiction and, moreover, dispelled the notion that government officials and heads of state were immune from liability for certain crimes they commit during their tenure. The Pinochet case expanded the reach of universal jurisdiction to include acts committed by sovereign officials. Around the same time as the...

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