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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

German–Soviet war

German–Soviet war   Reference library

Earl Ziemke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,672 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Konev, and South-West front under Malinovsky began RUMYANTSEV on 3 August. On 5 August, Model gave up Orel; Vatutin took Belgorod; and Stalin, in a special order of the day, declared that the ‘German legend’ of Soviet inability to wage a successful summer campaign had been dispelled. See also Kursk, battle of . Actually, a full-scale summer offensive would not be possible for some weeks yet, because Model kept three fronts tied up until 17 August and Manstein did likewise with three more until 23 August, when he evacuated Kharkov. But a major doubt had...

Châlons, battle of

Châlons, battle of (451)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in the mêlée, but a ferocious counter-attack by Thorismond drove the Huns from the field. Although the battle of Châlons was not a catastrophe, it was of considerable significance as being the first time that Attila had been defeated and suffered serious casualties. Châlons dispelled the myth of invincibility that had worked so potently on both his enemies and allies. Chris...

Annales Gandenses

Annales Gandenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...for the Flemings. Yet he did not absolve his fellow citizens of their excesses as they eagerly mopped up the battlefield at Courtrai by killing all the French they could, regardless of social status. As the annalist records, the massive defeat of French arms at Courtrai did not dispel King Philip IV’s ire against the region. In spite of the French loss in 1302 , Philip moved against Flanders in 1304 . The annalist again provides crucial details but a skewed conclusion for the resulting battle at Mons-en-Pèvéle; all the contemporary sources and modern...

Assassins

Assassins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...as a common noun meaning a professional murderer. The etymology of the name “Assassins” was eventually correctly explained by the orientalists of the nineteenth century. Modern scholarship in Ismaili studies, based on authentic Ismaili sources, has now begun to deconstruct and dispel the medieval legends surrounding the Nizaris. It has also shown that the name “Assassins” is a misnomer rooted in a pejorative appellation and lacking basis in any communal or organized use of hashish by the Nizari Ismailis, who were deeply devoted to their community. [ See also ...

enemy, attitudes to

enemy, attitudes to   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...soldier may feel neither hatred nor affection for the enemy. ‘I simply thought about the job in hand,’ recalled a British Falklands veteran, ‘and they happened to be in the way of getting the job done.’ On the other hand the abstract image of a hateful enemy is often dispelled by personal contact. In the Peninsular war , Sgt William Wheeler found a captured French corporal ‘as light hearted and merry a companion as I could wish’, while his compatriot Edward Costello established ‘a very amicable feeling’ for the French, ‘apart from duty in the...

Colored Troops, U.S

Colored Troops, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the art of soldiering. Initially, USCT regiments were mustered into service as labor and support units. The War Department and a substantial amount of the Northern public did not think that black troops could withstand the rigors of combat. Once they fought, black regiments dispelled that notion. In the spring and summer of 1863 , USCT units engaged in three major battles. The 1st and 3rd Louisiana Guards participated in an assault on the Confederate stronghold of Port Hudson on the Mississippi River in May. Although they did not break through the...

Napoleonic wars

Napoleonic wars (1803–15)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,134 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the home waters and the foreign trade on which Britain's prosperity and, ultimately, her ability to pay for the war depended, the Royal Navy already faced too many demands on its resources and tonnage was in short supply. Even the triumph of Trafalgar in 1805 was to fail to dispel Britain's basic strategic problems; her naval supremacy was a necessary condition for France's defeat, but it was not a sufficient one. Indeed, although Britain, relying on the flexibility of naval power , was to execute a number of raids on the littoral of the European...

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict   Reference library

Megan MacKenzie

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,730 words

...as a gender-neutral term as well as representations of the post-conflict era as a time where men and women’s experiences are similar. Assessments of post-conflict reconstruction, rehabilitation, progress, and development have been deeply impacted by emerging research that dispels traditional assumptions about “women’s place” both during and after conflict. Emerging research depicting women’s involvement in conflict and sources of empowerment for women in conflict complicate the notions that the end of war and the transition to peace is attractive to...

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment   Reference library

Sonalini Sapra

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,076 words

...rested on access to land, as well as other forms of capital and resources for livelihood security in both long-and short-term contexts ( Rocheleau and Edmunds 1997 ). Analyzing women's environmental struggles around the world, other scholars have used the FPE approach to dispel neo-Malthusian myths about environmental degradation, population, and security. For example, Lucy Jarosz uses an FPE approach to analyze Eko Okoko's article on women and environmental change in the Niger Delta. In the primary article, Okoko interviews 100 Ibeno women who are the...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...game theory offered a powerful framework for analyzing circumstances where there is no central authority to enforce agreements. Recognizing enduring cooperative arrangements in the real world and equipped with noncooperative game theory, a group of scholars set out to dispel the pessimism of the then dominant neorealist approach by answering the question of how international cooperation is possible under anarchy. Major Themes in the Study of International Cooperation ICT challenges neorealism not by arguing that the neorealist view is entirely...

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