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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Colored Troops, U.S

Colored Troops, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the art of soldiering. Initially, USCT regiments were mustered into service as labor and support units. The War Department and a substantial amount of the Northern public did not think that black troops could withstand the rigors of combat. Once they fought, black regiments dispelled that notion. In the spring and summer of 1863 , USCT units engaged in three major battles. The 1st and 3rd Louisiana Guards participated in an assault on the Confederate stronghold of Port Hudson on the Mississippi River in May. Although they did not break through the...

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict   Reference library

Megan MacKenzie

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,730 words

...as a gender-neutral term as well as representations of the post-conflict era as a time where men and women’s experiences are similar. Assessments of post-conflict reconstruction, rehabilitation, progress, and development have been deeply impacted by emerging research that dispels traditional assumptions about “women’s place” both during and after conflict. Emerging research depicting women’s involvement in conflict and sources of empowerment for women in conflict complicate the notions that the end of war and the transition to peace is attractive to...

Ethics, Justice, and Security

Ethics, Justice, and Security   Reference library

Anthony F. Lang, Jr.

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,251 words

...in the last few years ( Dershowitz 2002 ; Levinson 2004 ; Greenberg and Dratel 2005 ; Brecher 2007 ). Some have argued that to justify any form of violence with formal ethical analysis makes it more acceptable and is thus, in itself, wrong. This essay has hopefully dispelled this false notion. If ethics is simply about developing rules that outlaw various kinds of things, then it may be that ethical reflection on war should go back to the sixth Commandment – Do not kill. But, if ethical reflection is more than simply finding laws but also includes...

The History of International Studies

The History of International Studies   Reference library

Brian C. Schmidt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,176 words

...in the existing gaps. The past 10 years have seen enormous progress in gaining a better understanding of the history of the field. The new research has helped to legitimate disciplinary history as a valid and necessary research activity. There is still much work to be done to dispel the many myths that continue to circulate about how the field has developed. Yet as new research and literature on the history of IR is put forth, it will be increasingly difficult to intellectually defend the misconceptions that have been cast on the field’s past. Brian C...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...game theory offered a powerful framework for analyzing circumstances where there is no central authority to enforce agreements. Recognizing enduring cooperative arrangements in the real world and equipped with noncooperative game theory, a group of scholars set out to dispel the pessimism of the then dominant neorealist approach by answering the question of how international cooperation is possible under anarchy. Major Themes in the Study of International Cooperation ICT challenges neorealism not by arguing that the neorealist view is entirely...

Nuclear Strategy

Nuclear Strategy   Reference library

Patrick M. Morgan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,684 words

...manifestly rational for both sides to pursue were held up or cancelled because the overall political climate was not right. Fortunately, nuclear strategy did not produce what many feared – a self-sustaining security dilemma that made insecurity overwhelming and impossible to dispel. As the major political differences eased, the Cold War fell away and nuclear arms racing and elaborate reliance on nuclear deterrence postures went with it. It ended rather easily after all. Patrick M. Morgan University of California, Irvine References Alperovitz,...

Political Demography

Political Demography   Reference library

Tadeusz Kugler and Jacek Kugler

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,064 words

...equal. The concept of race that permeates much of the demographic analysis seems misplaced. Compounding the problems of defining a “race” is population mobility. With the exception of highly isolated populations, all major centers experienced large migration waves that further dispelled minor differences. Indeed, an objective measurement of race is increasingly difficult ( Cartmill 1998 ). Anthropologists have shown that defining groups of people with similar physical characteristics by “race” is not supported by the evidence ( Le Melle 2009 ). There are too...

Chambers, Cyril

Chambers, Cyril (28 February 1897–2 October 1975)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...at the expense of their men and that all virtue resided in the ranks. A public campaign which raised concern about the moral climate of the occupation of Japan saw him make an official inspection of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force area in late 1946 , which helped to dispel public, or at least newspaper, concern about the circumstances confronting Australian troops there. He was a strong Catholic (which did not prevent him from marrying three times, on the second occasion to a divorcee) and member of the Labor right, opposed to communist influence...

Châlons, battle of

Châlons, battle of (451)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in the mêlée, but a ferocious counter-attack by Thorismond drove the Huns from the field. Although the battle of Châlons was not a catastrophe, it was of considerable significance as being the first time that Attila had been defeated and suffered serious casualties. Châlons dispelled the myth of invincibility that had worked so potently on both his enemies and allies. Chris...

Annales Gandenses

Annales Gandenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...for the Flemings. Yet he did not absolve his fellow citizens of their excesses as they eagerly mopped up the battlefield at Courtrai by killing all the French they could, regardless of social status. As the annalist records, the massive defeat of French arms at Courtrai did not dispel King Philip IV’s ire against the region. In spite of the French loss in 1302 , Philip moved against Flanders in 1304 . The annalist again provides crucial details but a skewed conclusion for the resulting battle at Mons-en-Pèvéle; all the contemporary sources and modern...

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