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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

primaries, Presidential

primaries, Presidential   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
961 words

...Republican primaries but could not derail the candidacy of Thomas Dewey. Entering primaries enabled candidates to dispel doubts about their electability and gain the support of political bosses who controlled a majority of the convention delegates. In 1960 John F. Kennedy won primaries in Wisconsin and West Virginia, demonstrating that a Catholic could do well with Protestant voters. In 1968 Richard Nixon won enough primaries to dispel his “loser” reputation. By 1968 primaries were held in 17 states, accounting for 37.5 percent of the Democratic and...

Honecker, Erich

Honecker, Erich (25 Aug. 1912)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
660 words

...German Social Democrats, and his arrogance towards the Soviet Union. He sought, and gained, Soviet blessing for the removal of Ulbricht as SED first secretary in 1971 . He was then unanimously elected to that office, which he occupied until October 1989 . Honecker sought to dispel his austere image. For a time he allowed more freedom in the arts. In 1976 he also announced a mass of social welfare measures designed to increase the birth rate. He followed the Soviet line on détente with West Germany, which paved the way for mutual recognition by the two...

Owen, David

Owen, David (2 July 1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
571 words

...and Owen—the two went their own ways. Journalists gleefully played the game of ‘hunt the split’. While many Liberals talked of the possibility of an Alliance government, he dismissed such talk and campaigned for a hung parliament. He was still strongly anti-Labour and eager to dispel impressions that a vote for the Alliance might provide a backdoor entry for a Labour government. He admired Mrs Thatcher as a leader more than Neil Kinnock . Following the election there were moves in both parties to effect a merger. Owen resisted, but when a ballot of SDP...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

Marta Dyczok

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,212 words

...Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler exterminated countless millions in Holodomor (artificial famine), the Gulag, two world wars, and more. When Ukraine appeared on the world map in 1991 , its first task was to establish itself as an independent actor on the international scene, to dispel the perception that it was Russia's junior partner. This really happened only after 1994 , in large part because of the way that Ukraine played its nuclear card—it agreed to give up the weapons it inherited from the Soviet era (the only country in history to do so) but only in a...

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict   Reference library

Megan MacKenzie

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,730 words

...as a gender-neutral term as well as representations of the post-conflict era as a time where men and women’s experiences are similar. Assessments of post-conflict reconstruction, rehabilitation, progress, and development have been deeply impacted by emerging research that dispels traditional assumptions about “women’s place” both during and after conflict. Emerging research depicting women’s involvement in conflict and sources of empowerment for women in conflict complicate the notions that the end of war and the transition to peace is attractive to...

China

China   Reference library

Wei-Chin Lee

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,604 words

...pragmatism usually prevailed, yielding an overall forward trajectory. Even in the wake of the brutal suppression of the 1989 Tiananmen Square pro-democracy demonstration, Deng remained steadfast by declaring that “development is the only hard truth” in the early 1990 s to dispel any doubt of China ’s quest for economic transition and growth. China continued its extraordinary growth trajectory in the 1990 s and the 2000 s, with an average growth of over 10 percent per year until the second half of 2008 , when the world economy was hindered by the...

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment

Feminist Perspectives on the Environment   Reference library

Sonalini Sapra

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,076 words

...rested on access to land, as well as other forms of capital and resources for livelihood security in both long-and short-term contexts ( Rocheleau and Edmunds 1997 ). Analyzing women's environmental struggles around the world, other scholars have used the FPE approach to dispel neo-Malthusian myths about environmental degradation, population, and security. For example, Lucy Jarosz uses an FPE approach to analyze Eko Okoko's article on women and environmental change in the Niger Delta. In the primary article, Okoko interviews 100 Ibeno women who are the...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...game theory offered a powerful framework for analyzing circumstances where there is no central authority to enforce agreements. Recognizing enduring cooperative arrangements in the real world and equipped with noncooperative game theory, a group of scholars set out to dispel the pessimism of the then dominant neorealist approach by answering the question of how international cooperation is possible under anarchy. Major Themes in the Study of International Cooperation ICT challenges neorealism not by arguing that the neorealist view is entirely...

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations   Reference library

John Boli, Selina Gallo-Cruz, and Matt Mathias

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,519 words

...of the ideology of the individual in similar forms worldwide, and these various institutionalizations of the ideology contribute to an expanding moral apparatus that provides a sense of progress at the individual, national, and global levels. World-polity theory thus seeks to dispel the fog of methodological individualism so that the empirical consequences of cultural individualism come into view. The consequences are many, right across the social spectrum, and their globality, once uncovered, is impressive. These consequences go largely unnoticed by other...

The History of International Studies

The History of International Studies   Reference library

Brian C. Schmidt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,176 words

...in the existing gaps. The past 10 years have seen enormous progress in gaining a better understanding of the history of the field. The new research has helped to legitimate disciplinary history as a valid and necessary research activity. There is still much work to be done to dispel the many myths that continue to circulate about how the field has developed. Yet as new research and literature on the history of IR is put forth, it will be increasingly difficult to intellectually defend the misconceptions that have been cast on the field’s past. Brian C...

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