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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

primaries, Presidential

primaries, Presidential   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
961 words

...Republican primaries but could not derail the candidacy of Thomas Dewey. Entering primaries enabled candidates to dispel doubts about their electability and gain the support of political bosses who controlled a majority of the convention delegates. In 1960 John F. Kennedy won primaries in Wisconsin and West Virginia, demonstrating that a Catholic could do well with Protestant voters. In 1968 Richard Nixon won enough primaries to dispel his “loser” reputation. By 1968 primaries were held in 17 states, accounting for 37.5 percent of the Democratic and...

Honecker, Erich

Honecker, Erich (25 Aug. 1912)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
660 words

...German Social Democrats, and his arrogance towards the Soviet Union. He sought, and gained, Soviet blessing for the removal of Ulbricht as SED first secretary in 1971 . He was then unanimously elected to that office, which he occupied until October 1989 . Honecker sought to dispel his austere image. For a time he allowed more freedom in the arts. In 1976 he also announced a mass of social welfare measures designed to increase the birth rate. He followed the Soviet line on détente with West Germany, which paved the way for mutual recognition by the two...

Owen, David

Owen, David (2 July 1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
571 words

...and Owen—the two went their own ways. Journalists gleefully played the game of ‘hunt the split’. While many Liberals talked of the possibility of an Alliance government, he dismissed such talk and campaigned for a hung parliament. He was still strongly anti-Labour and eager to dispel impressions that a vote for the Alliance might provide a backdoor entry for a Labour government. He admired Mrs Thatcher as a leader more than Neil Kinnock . Following the election there were moves in both parties to effect a merger. Owen resisted, but when a ballot of SDP...

Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥaq al-

Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥaq al-   Reference library

Peter Adamson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
865 words

...that for al-Kindī the proper political arrangement consists in rule by a rational king, which is greeted by unquestioning obedience. For insight into the proper behavior of such a rational king, we can turn to al-Kindī's extant ethical writings. In a work entitled “On Dispelling Sorrows,” he first sets out the basic ethical principle that one should disdain the goods of the physical world and turn towards the “world of the intellect.” He then gives a series of anecdotes, sayings, and bits of advice intended to help us achieve this. Several of these...

Shuʿūbīyah

Shuʿūbīyah   Reference library

Racha el Omari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,871 words

...in the way it looks at tafsīr (Qurʾānic exegesis) as a new source for the study of the Shuʿūbīyah movement, where locality, rather than lineage or language, emerges as a basic trait for the self-identification of the proponents of the Shuʿūbīyah. Furthermore, Mottahedeh dispels any lingering notion of the Shuʿūbīyah's historical connection to modern Iranian nationalism. Norris, H. T. “Shuʿūbīyah in Arabic Literature.” In ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres , edited by Julia Ashtiany , pp. 32–47. Cambridge History of Arabic Literature 4. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge...

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict   Reference library

Megan MacKenzie

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,730 words

...as a gender-neutral term as well as representations of the post-conflict era as a time where men and women’s experiences are similar. Assessments of post-conflict reconstruction, rehabilitation, progress, and development have been deeply impacted by emerging research that dispels traditional assumptions about “women’s place” both during and after conflict. Emerging research depicting women’s involvement in conflict and sources of empowerment for women in conflict complicate the notions that the end of war and the transition to peace is attractive to...

Ethics, Justice, and Security

Ethics, Justice, and Security   Reference library

Anthony F. Lang, Jr.

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,251 words

...in the last few years ( Dershowitz 2002 ; Levinson 2004 ; Greenberg and Dratel 2005 ; Brecher 2007 ). Some have argued that to justify any form of violence with formal ethical analysis makes it more acceptable and is thus, in itself, wrong. This essay has hopefully dispelled this false notion. If ethics is simply about developing rules that outlaw various kinds of things, then it may be that ethical reflection on war should go back to the sixth Commandment – Do not kill. But, if ethical reflection is more than simply finding laws but also includes...

The History of International Studies

The History of International Studies   Reference library

Brian C. Schmidt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,176 words

...in the existing gaps. The past 10 years have seen enormous progress in gaining a better understanding of the history of the field. The new research has helped to legitimate disciplinary history as a valid and necessary research activity. There is still much work to be done to dispel the many myths that continue to circulate about how the field has developed. Yet as new research and literature on the history of IR is put forth, it will be increasingly difficult to intellectually defend the misconceptions that have been cast on the field’s past. Brian C...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...game theory offered a powerful framework for analyzing circumstances where there is no central authority to enforce agreements. Recognizing enduring cooperative arrangements in the real world and equipped with noncooperative game theory, a group of scholars set out to dispel the pessimism of the then dominant neorealist approach by answering the question of how international cooperation is possible under anarchy. Major Themes in the Study of International Cooperation ICT challenges neorealism not by arguing that the neorealist view is entirely...

Nuclear Strategy

Nuclear Strategy   Reference library

Patrick M. Morgan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,684 words

...manifestly rational for both sides to pursue were held up or cancelled because the overall political climate was not right. Fortunately, nuclear strategy did not produce what many feared – a self-sustaining security dilemma that made insecurity overwhelming and impossible to dispel. As the major political differences eased, the Cold War fell away and nuclear arms racing and elaborate reliance on nuclear deterrence postures went with it. It ended rather easily after all. Patrick M. Morgan University of California, Irvine References Alperovitz,...

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