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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Thorndike, Edward Lee

Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874–1949)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
618 words

...at Teachers College of Columbia University, and his contributions to educational psychology are many. His textbook, Educational Psychology ( 1903 , later revised and expanded), became a classic in that field. In 1901 he published a paper with Robert Sessions Woodworth dispelling the myth that training on one task necessarily transfers to training on a different task ( see transfer of training ); this paper foretold the end of traditional classical education in schools. He also did work on mental measurements and the study of individual differences,...

hysteria

hysteria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,568 words

...treatment of female patients in late 19th-century Vienna, proposed that repressed sexual conflicts, which, if brought to consciousness, would arouse anxiety and distress, were converted into physical symptoms that symbolized the repressed wish and permitted the anxiety to be dispelled—the so-called primary gain. As Fenichel ( 1955 ) wrote, ‘In conversion, symptomatic changes of physical function occur which, unconsciously and in a distorted form, give expression to instinctual impulses that previously had been repressed.’ The lack of emotional response of...

mental imagery: depictive accounts

mental imagery: depictive accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,329 words

...line was visualized incorrectly! The precise spatial layout of these effects is strong evidence that TOAs support depictive representations. Second, what about the concern that depictive representations require a ‘little man’ (a homunculus ) to ‘look at’ them? This concern is dispelled by the fact that TOAs in the occipital lobe are part of a larger system. These areas send input to a set of areas in the temporal lobes that store visual memories, and also send input to a set of areas in the parietal lobes that specify spatial relations. The physical ‘wiring’...

functionalist theories of consciousness

functionalist theories of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,760 words

...is fundamentally a distinction between kinds of concepts, not kinds of properties or facts, according to functionalism. If some discomfort or sense of mystery still attaches to the idea that a phenomenal/perspectival fact could simply be a functional fact, it may be dispelled by conceptual or empirical progress in articulating the two sides of the identity. Two broad theoretical strategies dominate recent functionalist accounts of consciousness; these strategies are often deployed in tandem, with details varying from one philosopher to another. The...

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