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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Nuclear Regulatory Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the safety of nuclear power and other civilian applications of nuclear energy. The NRC, headed by five commissioners appointed by the president of United States, began operations in January 1975 . Most of its staff members were holdovers from the AEC, but the new agency hoped to dispel the widespread public suspicion of the AEC by demonstrating its toughness as a regulator. This proved difficult, if not impossible. As the public debate over the safety of nuclear power raged on, former critics of the AEC were not inclined to regard the NRC more charitably. The...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases   Reference library

Vern L. Bullough and Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...attack on prostitution, or “the social evil.” The influential American Medical Association actively supported this campaign. The New York City dermatologist Prince A. Morrow ( 1846–1914 ), a prominent figure in the venereal-disease field in the later part of his life, worked to dispel the silence surrounding these diseases and their spread. Only the elimination of prostitution, not just its regulation, Morrow insisted, would suffice. Because of the reformers’ emphasis on sexual self-control, the U.S. Army during World War I resisted issuing prophylactics to...

Sex Education

Sex Education   Reference library

Jeffrey P. Moran

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...were transmitted through prostitution and that the social-hygiene movement must therefore attack both problems simultaneously. Despite what they perceived as a “conspiracy of silence” surrounding sexual matters, social hygienists argued that sex education was essential to dispel the ignorance about sex, disease, and immorality that made prostitution and other misbehavior possible. After experimenting with public lectures to adult audiences, sex educators by 1914 turned decisively toward the public schools to teach young people a mixture of medical and...

Medical Malpractice

Medical Malpractice   Reference library

Kenneth Allen DeVille

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Health ; Religion and Science ; and Technology .] Bibliography Baker, Tom . The Medical Malpractice Myth . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Baker synthesizes the scholarly and empirical evidence on medical malpractice and makes a special attempt to test and dispel popular and professional misconceptions regarding suits. Bovbjerg, Randall R. , and Robert A. Berenson . “Surmounting Myths and Mindsets in Medical Malpractice.” Urban Policy Briefs . Urban Institute, 2005. http://www.urban.org/uploadedPDF/411227_medical_malpractice.pdf (accessed...

history of science

history of science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...is “one who makes knowledge.” Our idea of science—past and present—is prefigured by the word's literal meaning, a meaning underscored in the past two centuries by histories in which science is routinely depicted in triumphalist narratives as the domain of rational heroes who dispel dark ignorance by illuminating the hidden forces of nature. By the time academic professionals undertook the history of science in the twentieth century, scientists themselves had crafted historical accounts of their disciplines. By the late nineteenth century, histories of...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...only 400,000 were women ( Rossiter, 1995 , p. 31). Women for the most part missed out on the great age of postwar American science, during which record growth occurred in terms of monies spent, persons trained, and jobs created. This early history of women in U.S. science dispels the myth of inevitable progress: women’s participation cannot be characterized as a march of steady progress but as cycles of advancement and retrenchment. Women’s situation has changed along with the fortunes of war and peace, politics and economies, and climates of opinion....

Engineering

Engineering   Reference library

Ann Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Carolina Press, 2001. A study of the politics and economics of building public works. Layton, Edwin . “Mirror-Image Twins: The Communities of Science and Technology in 19th Century America.” Technology and Culture 12, no. 4 (October 1971): 562–580. A seminal article that dispels the notion that engineering is merely the application of existing science to practical problems. Layton shows the knowledge-producing practices of engineers. Layton, Edwin . Revolt of the Engineers: Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession . Baltimore: Johns...

population genetics

population genetics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,454 words

...Room group of Thomas Hunt Morgan . Their experimental results showed how continuous hereditary variation could be explained by discontinuous variation produced by small genetic mutations. The Biometric-Mendelian debate had been settled, but entrenched conceptions proved hard to dispel. In 1908 an English mathematician, G. H. Hardy , and a German physician, Wilhelm Weinberg , independently derived a simple yet crucial quantitative rule, expressing the idea that gene frequencies, or proportions, would remain constant unless acted upon by external forces. The...

art and science

art and science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,468 words

...the particular take precedence over the universal in artistic representations, for particularity is essential to rooting the object in a specific time and place. From idealization to deception and illusion is not a big step. Paintings portray miracles. Science reflects them. To dispel supernatural and miraculous origins of the Virgin Mary's “tears” in a painting, Johann Nepomuk Fischer in 1781 took recourse to early photometric techniques, especially as developed by Johann Heinrich Lambert ; he successfully separated optical illusion from reality. In the...

Cryosphere

Cryosphere   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,865 words

... of UC Santa Cruz concentrated on the glaciers feeding the Ross Ice Shelf. The radar revealed that, so far from melting away, the region is accumulating new ice at a brisk rate. Thanks to the observations from space, Denton's scenario of West Antarctica melting seemed to be dispelled. The ice sheets on the whole are pretty indifferent to minor fluctuations of climate such as occurred in the 20th century. They are playing in a different league, where the games last for tens of thousands of years. The chief features are growth during ice ages, followed by...

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