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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Thorndike, Edward Lee

Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874–1949)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
618 words

...at Teachers College of Columbia University, and his contributions to educational psychology are many. His textbook, Educational Psychology ( 1903 , later revised and expanded), became a classic in that field. In 1901 he published a paper with Robert Sessions Woodworth dispelling the myth that training on one task necessarily transfers to training on a different task ( see transfer of training ); this paper foretold the end of traditional classical education in schools. He also did work on mental measurements and the study of individual differences,...

hysteria

hysteria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,568 words

...treatment of female patients in late 19th-century Vienna, proposed that repressed sexual conflicts, which, if brought to consciousness, would arouse anxiety and distress, were converted into physical symptoms that symbolized the repressed wish and permitted the anxiety to be dispelled—the so-called primary gain. As Fenichel ( 1955 ) wrote, ‘In conversion, symptomatic changes of physical function occur which, unconsciously and in a distorted form, give expression to instinctual impulses that previously had been repressed.’ The lack of emotional response of...

REMOND, Sarah

REMOND, Sarah (1826–1894)   Reference library

Katrina Anderson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the blood of the slave, the more gold is poured out when the auctioneer has a woman for sale” ( Warrington Times , 29 January 1859 ). Mulatto slaves were purchased as sexual partners for their masters rather than field laborers. Through these examples, Remond sought to dispel the myth that slave women were sexually promiscuous and lacking the moral integrity of white females. Slave women lacked recourse to protect themselves from sexual abuse. Rather than explicitly describing sexual abuse, Remond alluded to the difficulties faced by female slaves and...

mental imagery: depictive accounts

mental imagery: depictive accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,329 words

...line was visualized incorrectly! The precise spatial layout of these effects is strong evidence that TOAs support depictive representations. Second, what about the concern that depictive representations require a ‘little man’ (a homunculus ) to ‘look at’ them? This concern is dispelled by the fact that TOAs in the occipital lobe are part of a larger system. These areas send input to a set of areas in the temporal lobes that store visual memories, and also send input to a set of areas in the parietal lobes that specify spatial relations. The physical ‘wiring’...

GRIMES, James Stanley

GRIMES, James Stanley (1807–1903)   Reference library

Owen Anderson and Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...for itself, and as he did not notice his own interpretive method. Interestingly, while Grimes decried special creation as an impediment to education, he suggested that perhaps to remain in happy ignorance about a false future state would be better than to have this illusion dispelled by science. However, even better yet would be to recognize that there is no conflict between science and faith, and that the more one learns about the workings of the world, the more one holds onto hope in a happy afterlife promised to those who are pious and obedient to God....

BARTLETT, Elisha

BARTLETT, Elisha (1804–1855)   Reference library

Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who advocated and successfully employed empiricism rather than metaphysical speculation in medicine. Bartlett dedicated the book to one of the leaders of this new movement, Louis, the originator of rigorously quantitative methods in medical research, and famous as the dispeller of the dangerous and ineffective therapeutics of François Joseph Victor Broussais . Louis and Bartlett urged not only careful observation of clinical presentations, which had been the norm in medicine since Hippocrates, but also careful collection and numerical analysis of data...

Islamic Aesthetics

Islamic Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,854 words

...geometry, painting, and music. Comments on the curative value of beautiful paintings by the physician Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā al-Rāzī ( 864–925 ) stress the practical benefits of aesthetic pleasure. Al-Rāzī recommends looking at wall paintings or paintings in books in order to dispel gloom and keep the humors in their proper balance. He claims that earlier (i.e., Greek) scholars had discovered the importance of using wall paintings in baths that depict animal combats, the embrace of lovers, as well as the trees and flowers of a garden, because each theme...

Essentialism

Essentialism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,171 words

...of G. W. F. Hegel and such idealist followers as Benedetto Croce ( 1922 ) and Robin George Collingwood ( 1938 ). It was in this context that John A. Passmore ( 1954 ) attacked aestheticians for pretentiously saying nothing and for trying to retain mystery rather than dispel it. Aesthetics, he maintained, has presented us with empty and accommodating formulas based on an attempt to impose “a spurious unity” on a conflicted field. Most aesthetics books are dull because they fail to bring sharpness to their subject matters, and because they bring...

Science and Aesthetics

Science and Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,988 words

...art induces pleasure, science discloses facts; unfettered inspiration makes for art, slavish adherence to methodological canons, for science; art is subjective, science objective. Such stereotypes consign art and science to hostile camps. In so doing, they misrepresent both. By dispelling such stereotypes, we gain a better understanding of the relations between the two disciplines. Counterexamples are legion. Michelangelo Buonarroti's Last Judgment , Joseph Conrad 's Heart of Darkness , and Gustav Mahler 's Ninth Symphony are dark, disconcerting, even...

Arnold, Matthew

Arnold, Matthew (1822)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,107 words

...Trilling began his career by writing an intellectual biography of Arnold, and Leavis, despite his nearidolatrous deference to Eliot, vigorously defended Arnold against Eliot's strictures. In one of his essays, the poet Wallace Stevens ( 1989 ) remarks that “to see the gods dispelled in mid-air and dissolve like clouds is one of the great human experiences.” A historian contemplating the fate of Arnoldian humanism in the past three or four decades might have an experience similar to that which Stevens describes. In the early 1970s, a metaphysical revolution...

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