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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Bunker Hill, Battle of

Bunker Hill, Battle of   Reference library

Donald R. Lennon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Hill, Battle of The battle of Bunker Hill, fought on 17 June 1775 , helped to dispel the British view that rebellious American colonists would flee when faced with British army professionals. After the engagements at Lexington and Concord, volunteer forces assembled around Boston, headquarters of the British army. Fearing that the British would fortify strategic locations adjoining the city, Boston's Committee of Safety on 16 June ordered New England troops into the Charlestown peninsula north of Boston, to fortify Bunker Hill. This promontory,...

Annales Gandenses

Annales Gandenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...for the Flemings. Yet he did not absolve his fellow citizens of their excesses as they eagerly mopped up the battlefield at Courtrai by killing all the French they could, regardless of social status. As the annalist records, the massive defeat of French arms at Courtrai did not dispel King Philip IV’s ire against the region. In spite of the French loss in 1302 , Philip moved against Flanders in 1304 . The annalist again provides crucial details but a skewed conclusion for the resulting battle at Mons-en-Pèvéle; all the contemporary sources and modern...

Assassins

Assassins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...as a common noun meaning a professional murderer. The etymology of the name “Assassins” was eventually correctly explained by the orientalists of the nineteenth century. Modern scholarship in Ismaili studies, based on authentic Ismaili sources, has now begun to deconstruct and dispel the medieval legends surrounding the Nizaris. It has also shown that the name “Assassins” is a misnomer rooted in a pejorative appellation and lacking basis in any communal or organized use of hashish by the Nizari Ismailis, who were deeply devoted to their community. [ See also ...

Fulbright, William

Fulbright, William (1905–1995)   Reference library

Jonathan A. Kolieb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the war in Vietnam, questioning its efficacy, legality, and morality. Beginning in 1966 , Fulbright held several televised committee hearings on U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. As Fulbright himself developed a healthy distrust of the executive, so, too, did he help dispel the often blind trust that Americans had had for their government—and most especially for their presidents—during the first few decades of the Cold War. A recurrent theme in Fulbright's six books was a warning against the hubris that so often leads to the downfall of great...

Colored Troops, U.S

Colored Troops, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the art of soldiering. Initially, USCT regiments were mustered into service as labor and support units. The War Department and a substantial amount of the Northern public did not think that black troops could withstand the rigors of combat. Once they fought, black regiments dispelled that notion. In the spring and summer of 1863 , USCT units engaged in three major battles. The 1st and 3rd Louisiana Guards participated in an assault on the Confederate stronghold of Port Hudson on the Mississippi River in May. Although they did not break through the...

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

North Atlantic Treaty Organization   Reference library

Trudie Eklund and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...When Joseph Stalin died in 1953 , the Allies became hopeful that the Soviet Union would become less militant, particularly after Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev , criticized Stalin's dictatorship and accused him of escalating international tensions. Khrushchev quickly dispelled this optimism, particularly after he ordered a Soviet force into Hungary in 1956 to suppress a rebellion and maintain Communist rule. In 1957 , the USSR launched Sputnik, the first space satellite, signaling that they had begun the process of building long-range nuclear...

Masefield, John

Masefield, John (1878–1967)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,038 words

...writer , . Born in Ledbury , Herefordshire, on June 1, 1878 , John Edward Masefield was educated aboard the Mersey school ship HMS Conway between 1891 and 1894 . He was orphaned at the age of twelve, and his guardians hoped that training for the merchant marine would dispel his aspirations of becoming a writer. In Liverpool, the sight of Wanderer , a four-masted barque, was a profound experience for Masefield, and the image is a recurrent symbol throughout his work. As an apprentice, Masefield sailed from Cardiff around Cape Horn to Iquique, ...

Imaginary Voyages

Imaginary Voyages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,027 words

...use of geographical knowledge, and the prominence within it of regions to the south of the Old World—especially the legendary “Great Southern Land,” which originated in ancient Greek cosmology and long oriented geographical speculation, remaining a favorite theme until finally dispelled by explorations around the 1760s. Novelists exploited it for a century prior to that, on levels ranging from the narrative and scenic to that on which travel and (cultural) displacement becomes a metaphor laden with sociopolitical or psychological meaning. This century of...

Expeditions, Scientific

Expeditions, Scientific   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,541 words

...apparently as low as 25.5°F and soundings that brought up seabed-dwelling animals from depths of almost 2,000 meters (6,560 feet)—that is, much deeper than the previous record soundings. Although there is now some doubt about the veracity of these results, they should have dispelled two influential and erroneous theories that held sway through much of the nineteenth century. The first of these was the so-called “azoic theory,” later developed by Edward Forbes ( 1815–1854 ), according to which the deep ocean, beyond a depth of a few hundred meters, was...

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,059 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Islands, Îles Crozet, and Îles Kerguelen. Then came the great second voyage of Captain James Cook in 1772–1775 commanding HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure , whose captain was Captain Tobias Furneaux . Cook circumnavigated Antarctica in the high southern latitudes, dispelling forever the myth of a fertile southern continent extending into temperate climes. This expedition discovered the South Sandwich Islands, and landed on South Georgia, taking possession of it for King George III , after whom the island was named. Captain Cook made the first...

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