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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Colored Troops, U.S

Colored Troops, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the art of soldiering. Initially, USCT regiments were mustered into service as labor and support units. The War Department and a substantial amount of the Northern public did not think that black troops could withstand the rigors of combat. Once they fought, black regiments dispelled that notion. In the spring and summer of 1863 , USCT units engaged in three major battles. The 1st and 3rd Louisiana Guards participated in an assault on the Confederate stronghold of Port Hudson on the Mississippi River in May. Although they did not break through the...

Fulbright, William

Fulbright, William (1905–1995)   Reference library

Jonathan A. Kolieb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the war in Vietnam, questioning its efficacy, legality, and morality. Beginning in 1966 , Fulbright held several televised committee hearings on U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. As Fulbright himself developed a healthy distrust of the executive, so, too, did he help dispel the often blind trust that Americans had had for their government—and most especially for their presidents—during the first few decades of the Cold War. A recurrent theme in Fulbright's six books was a warning against the hubris that so often leads to the downfall of great...

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

North Atlantic Treaty Organization   Reference library

Trudie Eklund and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...When Joseph Stalin died in 1953 , the Allies became hopeful that the Soviet Union would become less militant, particularly after Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev , criticized Stalin's dictatorship and accused him of escalating international tensions. Khrushchev quickly dispelled this optimism, particularly after he ordered a Soviet force into Hungary in 1956 to suppress a rebellion and maintain Communist rule. In 1957 , the USSR launched Sputnik, the first space satellite, signaling that they had begun the process of building long-range nuclear...

Masefield, John

Masefield, John (1878–1967)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,038 words

...writer , . Born in Ledbury , Herefordshire, on June 1, 1878 , John Edward Masefield was educated aboard the Mersey school ship HMS Conway between 1891 and 1894 . He was orphaned at the age of twelve, and his guardians hoped that training for the merchant marine would dispel his aspirations of becoming a writer. In Liverpool, the sight of Wanderer , a four-masted barque, was a profound experience for Masefield, and the image is a recurrent symbol throughout his work. As an apprentice, Masefield sailed from Cardiff around Cape Horn to Iquique, ...

Imaginary Voyages

Imaginary Voyages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,027 words

...use of geographical knowledge, and the prominence within it of regions to the south of the Old World—especially the legendary “Great Southern Land,” which originated in ancient Greek cosmology and long oriented geographical speculation, remaining a favorite theme until finally dispelled by explorations around the 1760s. Novelists exploited it for a century prior to that, on levels ranging from the narrative and scenic to that on which travel and (cultural) displacement becomes a metaphor laden with sociopolitical or psychological meaning. This century of...

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,059 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Islands, Îles Crozet, and Îles Kerguelen. Then came the great second voyage of Captain James Cook in 1772–1775 commanding HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure , whose captain was Captain Tobias Furneaux . Cook circumnavigated Antarctica in the high southern latitudes, dispelling forever the myth of a fertile southern continent extending into temperate climes. This expedition discovered the South Sandwich Islands, and landed on South Georgia, taking possession of it for King George III , after whom the island was named. Captain Cook made the first...

Expeditions, Scientific

Expeditions, Scientific   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,541 words

...apparently as low as 25.5°F and soundings that brought up seabed-dwelling animals from depths of almost 2,000 meters (6,560 feet)—that is, much deeper than the previous record soundings. Although there is now some doubt about the veracity of these results, they should have dispelled two influential and erroneous theories that held sway through much of the nineteenth century. The first of these was the so-called “azoic theory,” later developed by Edward Forbes ( 1815–1854 ), according to which the deep ocean, beyond a depth of a few hundred meters, was...

Cartography

Cartography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
13,094 words

...and balance pointed toward equivalent amounts of land in the southern and northern hemispheres, for, as Mercator wrote, without this the world would tumble to destruction among the stars. Voyages into the southern oceans, although few and far between, strengthened rather than dispelled the illusion of a great southern continent, Terra Australis Incognita (or sometimes Nondum Cognita , “not yet known”). For masthead lookouts, clouds on the horizon could easily resemble land, and distant islands might be the capes of a continent. In dealing with such...

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
35,913 words
Illustration(s):
9

...his crew eat fresh foods while in port; by instituting three, rather than the usual two, watches; by ordering men coming off duty to change into dry clothes; and by keeping the ship clean. He became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle, which he did three times. He dispelled the age-old notion of a rich, populous Terra Australis. In doing so, he discovered or rediscovered numerous islands: Easter Island, the Marquesas, the New Hebrides , New Caledonia , and Norfolk. Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster , the scientists on the voyage,...

Chambers, Cyril

Chambers, Cyril (28 February 1897–2 October 1975)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...at the expense of their men and that all virtue resided in the ranks. A public campaign which raised concern about the moral climate of the occupation of Japan saw him make an official inspection of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force area in late 1946 , which helped to dispel public, or at least newspaper, concern about the circumstances confronting Australian troops there. He was a strong Catholic (which did not prevent him from marrying three times, on the second occasion to a divorcee) and member of the Labor right, opposed to communist influence...

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