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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Tennis

Tennis   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
606 words

...History of the Championships . London: CollinsWillow, 2001. A richly illustrated and comprehensive history of one of the game's premier events. Gillmeister, Heiner . Tennis: A Cultural History . New York: New York University Press, 1998. A meticulously researched book that dispels many misconceptions concerning the early history of the game. Alison...

Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic Surgery   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,117 words

...damage, burns, and lost limbs who required reconstructive surgery. This gave surgeons the chance to practice their surgical techniques and gain experience in performing operations. The association of bodily deformation with syphilis or divine retribution for committing sins was dispelled by the noble and deserving soldier, disfigured in the defense of his country, thereby making cosmetic surgery salonfähig (socially acceptable) for the first time. In the first decade of the twenty-first century cosmetic surgery has become a multibillion-dollar business. It is...

British Broadcasting Corporation

British Broadcasting Corporation   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,081 words

...more plentiful, whetting a political appetite for deregulation. The BBC's radio monopoly was broken at local level in 1973 and at national level in 1992 . Since the 1980s, cable and satellite television has proliferated, and the digital technology of the 1990s has finally dispelled any notion that broadcasting is a scarce or precious commodity. The BBC's survival strategy, partly imposed by the government, has been to supplement its license income by behaving commercially. It has operated overseas services since 1932 , but its world television service,...

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,840 words

...of Darius I ( 522–486 b.c.e. ) are full of the praise of the god and creator Ahura Mazda , who was depicted in imperial art as a male god standing within a winged disk—drawing upon Assyrian and Egyptian religious symbolism. Fire came to be regarded as a pure creation that dispelled evil, and it became the religion's icon, evidenced in “fire altars” and “fire temples” probably dating to the Median ( 673–550 b.c.e. ) and Achaemenian periods. By the time of the Sassanian dynasty (224–651), Zoroastrianism had become the dominant faith among most groups in Iran...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,296 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and the state. Vladimir Ilich Lenin saw revolution as inevitable, although it had to be mediated through a vanguard. A product of the capitalist world system, the socialist revolution would also be global. Joseph Stalin developed the idea of socialism in one country and dispelled the emphasis on world revolution within the Communist International or Comintern (founded in 1919 ). In 1934 the Popular Fronts implied national alliances against fascism, lessening the emphasis on revolution and proletarian leadership. The Chinese Communist Mao Zedong ...

Owen, David

Owen, David (2 July 1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
572 words

...and Owen—the two went their own ways. Journalists gleefully played the game of ‘hunt the split’. While many Liberals talked of the possibility of an Alliance government, he dismissed such talk and campaigned for a hung parliament. He was still strongly anti-Labour and eager to dispel impressions that a vote for the Alliance might provide a backdoor entry for a Labour government. He admired Mrs Thatcher as a leader more than Neil Kinnock . Following the election there were moves in both parties to effect a merger. Owen resisted, but when a ballot of SDP members...

Honecker, Erich

Honecker, Erich (25 Aug. 1912)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
789 words

...German Social Democrats, and his arrogance towards the Soviet Union. He sought, and gained, Soviet blessing for the removal of Ulbricht as SED first secretary in 1971 . He was then unanimously elected to that office, which he occupied until October 1989 . Honecker sought to dispel his austere image. For a time he allowed more freedom in the arts. In 1976 he also announced a mass of social welfare measures designed to increase the birth rate. Honecker's political priority was to provide the individual with the wherewithal to realize her or his fulfilment...

Global Warming

Global Warming   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,809 words

...the Kyoto Protocol were obligated to begin negotiations no later than 2005 for a second commitment period beyond 2008–2012 that would be stronger and include developing countries. The 6:30 a.m. conclusion of a Montreal, Canada, follow-up conference on 9 December 2005 dispelled all rumors of an early demise of the Kyoto Protocol by extending and agreeing to deeper emission cuts, while launching a dialogue with the United States. With the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index released by the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in ...

Guerrillas and Guerrilla Movements

Guerrillas and Guerrilla Movements   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,671 words
Illustration(s):
1

...traditional empires of Eurasia, of which the Ottomans were an example. The fortunes of the revolutionary guerrilla improved in the twentieth century. The world wars deprived Europeans of the material strength required to retain their place at the center of the world system and dispelled the aura of efficiency and imperviousness that had surrounded colonial regimes. These effects were amplified by the spread of communism as a global ideology. It provided guerrilla movements with a superior set of organizing tools and held out the prospect of direct assistance...

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