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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...toys, games, and jigsaw puzzles for children had become common. Not least, diet was more varied, with a greater range of fruit and vegetables. People owned more changes of clothes, particularly with the growing availability of cheaper calicoes and cottons. Efficient oil-lamps dispelled the age-old stygian gloom; gas lighting arrived with the new century, soon to be followed by railway travel and the electric telegraph. Outside the home, urban space was being spruced up. In many towns, straight, well-demarcated streets replaced the labyrinthine old warrens of...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to Peacock, ‘a semi-barbarian in a civilized community’ because his craft belongs in a society where imagination and feeling are the only index to reality. Where Wordsworth turns to the poet to heal wounds inflicted by civilization, Peacock turns to the scientist and historian to dispel the merely subjective pronouncements of the poet. For Peacock, the literature of knowledge acts on the literature of power as an agent of disenchantment, a position which * Byron sketched in his suppressed Preface to Don Juan ( 1819–24 ) and put into practice in the rest of...

Autobiography

Autobiography   Reference library

Susan C. Imbarrato

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to praise.” Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, Equiano, like other American autobiographers of his time, confronts an imperfect world. Their accounts demonstrate how determined individuals overcame obstacles and endured hardship while looking toward education and empirical data to dispel ignorance and to realize social change. Bibliography The Adams Papers, Serie1s I: Diaries: Diary and Autobiography of John Adams , ed. Lyman H. Butterfield , 4 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1961). The Journal and Major Essays of John Woolman , ed. Phillips P. Moulton (New York, 1971)...

Visitations

Visitations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,884 words

...think that their reports would have given an honest and by-and-large accurate account of what they heard and saw. But one cannot know this for certain. There is some hope that these and other doubts and questions about the verisimilitude of visitation records may eventually be dispelled. Recent scholarship has made great strides toward the systematic study of these rich sources, of which the overwhelming mass remains unprinted and widely scattered in state, church, and regional archives. French historians have developed an elaborate analytical scheme for...

Bible

Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
18,271 words

...scriptural exegesis—all are to him inseparable. Over the years, probably under the influence of Erasmus, Lefèvre became more critical in his approach to scripture and came to see it as the most important standard in determining faith. In De Maria Magdalena ( 1518 ) he tried to dispel the confusion, common in the Middle Ages, among the three Marys in the gospel narrative. By the time he published his Commentarii initiatorii in quatour Evangelia ( 1522 ) and especially Commentarii in Epistolas catholicas ( 1527 ), Lefèvre, although he never officially left...

Arnauld, Antoine

Arnauld, Antoine (1612–1694)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
803 words

... to the Méditations métaphysiques distributed in manuscript form by Marin Mersenne . Indeed, Arnauld embraced Cartesianism so wholeheartedly that it was claimed by his biographers that he had been a Cartesian before even reading Descartes. Recent research by Vincent Carraud dispels that myth, however, and shows Arnauld to have been an Occamist before embracing Cartesianism on reading the Méditations . Second, Cartesianism was introduced into debates among the theologians of Port-Royal, who maintained reservations toward philosophy in general or who...

Cook, James

Cook, James (1728–1779)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,914 words

...knowledge. It embodied a new approach—a new methodology. It was European rather than narrowly British in scope, but its best-known manifestation in this period came in Cook's voyages. The keynote of Cook's journals was the insistent determination to show things as they were, to dispel myth and fantasy through empirical observation and prompt publication. The observations of Cook and his associates played an important role in hydrography, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy, and much more. In the realm of natural history, the voyages were among the great...

Gibbon, Edward

Gibbon, Edward (1737–1794)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,330 words

...primitive Christian character, they found Gibbon's chapters 15 and 16 on the rise of Christianity decidedly offensive. He was intensely critical of institutional Christianity and its early records: “The scanty and suspicious materials of ecclesiastical history seldom enable us to dispel the dark cloud that hangs over the first age of the church.” These chapters were deliberately placed out of chronological sequence, and they represent a genuine inquiry on Gibbon's part, but most of his readers detected irony and satirical intent, which colored their view of The...

Tradition

Tradition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,891 words

...the encyclopédistes , Diderot and d'Alembert , Rousseau, Condorcet, and Voltaire, whom he named and whose ideas, he believed, had provided the arguments for destructive revolutions. They were willing to see traditional loyalties dissolved as political myths and illusions were dispelled and the aura surrounding royalty dissipated. Utilitarian arguments, hasty innovations, the loss of warm sentiments projected on high political figures to whom we owe allegiance, all of these were the grounds for a utopian experiment doomed to fail because it loosened the bonds...

Vigenère, Blaise de

Vigenère, Blaise de (1523–96)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
138 words

... he published his Traité des chiffres , a seminal work in which he presented ciphers so secure that many were not deciphered until the nineteenth century. In 1587 he published his Traité des comètes , in which he described comets as entirely natural phenomena and attempted to dispel the porpular belief that the appearance of a comet portended the death of a...

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