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1989

1989   Reference library

David Ost

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,962 words

Starting with roundtable negotiations in Poland in February and culminating in the fall of the Berlin Wall in November, 1989

1989

1989   Reference library

David Ost

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,461 words

Improbably, the major international developments of 1989 were all on display in the headlines of a single day, 4 June.

419

419   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A popular term in parts of West Africa that refers to scams, fraud, and confidence tricksters. Originating in Nigeria, ‘...

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,840 words

Judging the significance of any major event is never easy. Inevitably, new events come along to make what once appeared

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,843 words

Judging the significance of any major event is never easy. Inevitably, new events come along to make what once appeared

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,828 words

Judging the significance of any major event is never easy. Inevitably, new events come along to make what once appeared

Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, The Royal

Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, The Royal   Reference library

Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
769 words

The Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought is an independent non-governmental institute headquartered in Amman, Jordan, whose ultimate purpose

AB 540

AB 540   Reference library

Hinda Seif

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
986 words

AB 540 (Assembly Bill 540; California Education Code 68130.5) is a bill signed into law in California in 2001 that

abanakashi kuti babomba incito sha baume

abanakashi kuti babomba incito sha baume   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A Bemba phrase used in Zambia that translates as women can do what men can do, meaning that women are equal to men in a range of different contexts (jobs, leadership, business)....

Abangan

Abangan   Reference library

William E. Shepard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
912 words

The term Abangan is applied to Javanese who identify as Muslims but do not strictly follow the prescribed Islamic practices.

Abbas, Mahmoud

Abbas, Mahmoud (1935–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
135 words

Chairman of the *Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 2004 and President of the *Palestinian National Authority

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

Hugh Kennedy and Ken Burnside

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,178 words

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

ABC

ABC   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,744 words

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (formerly Commission) (ABC) has been defined as the ‘national’ broadcaster in broadcasting legislation since

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī (1888–1966)   Reference library

Laith Saud

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
827 words

ʿAbd al-Rāziq's contribution to Islamic political thought is his most enduring, as well as ambiguous, legacy. In 1925, his

Abdu, Muhammad

Abdu, Muhammad (1849–1905)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
99 words

Egyptian religious scholar and one of the founders of Islamic modernism. A student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani at Al-Azhar

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad (1849–1905)   Reference library

Scott Morrison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,639 words

whose opinions and convictions were firmly based in the possibility of synthesizing Islam and modernity.

The historical, intellectual, and political

Abdülhamid II

Abdülhamid II   Reference library

Engin Deniz Akarli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,257 words

Abdülhamid II, (1842–1918), was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). A profound political and economic crisis brought

Abdullah I

Abdullah I (1882–1951)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
114 words

Emir of Transjordan between 1921 and 1946 and King of Jordan from 1946 to 1951. The son of *

Abdullah II

Abdullah II (1962–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
81 words

King of Jordan since 1999, Abdullah II became King after his father, *Hussein bin Talal, altered the

Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, Tunku

Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, Tunku (8 Feb. 1903)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
403 words

A son of the Sultan of Kedah, the Tunku was educated at schools in Bangkok, Alor Setar, at the Penang

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