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9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,843 words

Judging the significance of any major event is never easy. Inevitably, new events come along to make what once appeared

Abortion

Abortion   Reference library

Dorothy E. McBride

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,946 words

The contemporary debate over abortion pertains to clashing views about the proper powers of state and federal governments to regulate

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action   Reference library

James P. Sterba

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,283 words

The first use of the phrase “affirmative action” is usually attributed to Executive Order 10925 issued by President John Kennedy

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,107 words

Modern-day Afghanistan, a landlocked state in Southwest Asia, has been a major preoccupation of American foreign policy for more

Africa–United States Relations

Africa–United States Relations   Reference library

J. Peter Pham

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,961 words

Although Africa’s contributions to the history and culture of the United States are significant in their variety and depth, it

African Americans, Contemporary Conditions

African Americans, Contemporary Conditions   Reference library

Yomi Durotoye

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,314 words

The election of Senator Barack Obama of Illinois as the forty-fourth president of the United States of America in 2008

African Americans, History

African Americans, History   Reference library

Clayborne Carson and Yomi Durotoye

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,833 words

More than 10 million people brought to the Americas as slaves from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries confronted a

Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Aid to Families with Dependent Children   Reference library

Alex Waddan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,182 words

Initially known as Aid to Dependent Children, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program was established as part

AIDS

AIDS   Reference library

Brooke Grundfest Schoepf, Janie Simmons, and Diane B. Kagoyire

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,062 words

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a relatively new disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,061 words

Al-Qaeda, most commonly translated into English as “The Base,” is the name of a terrorist network founded by Osama Bin

American Exceptionalism

American Exceptionalism   Reference library

Graham K. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,231 words

American exceptionalism can be understood in at least three different but related ways. First, exceptionalism can be understood as a

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations   Reference library

Graham K. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,926 words

The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) is the peak association representing labor in the United

Amnesty International

Amnesty International   Reference library

J. Paul Martin

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

Founded in 1961 by the British lawyer Peter Benenson (1921–2005), Amnesty International is a nongovernmental organization

Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict   Reference library

Don Peretz

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,066 words

Since 1948, when Jewish inhabitants of the former British mandate of Palestine established the state of Israel, the

Big Pharma

Big Pharma   Reference library

Alex Waddan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,744 words

The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, established in 1958, formally became known as the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (PhRMA) in

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights   Reference library

Ellis Sandoz

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,224 words

The Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution consists of the first ten amendments taken together, especially the first

Bin Laden, Osama

Bin Laden, Osama   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,112 words

(b. 1957). Osama Bin Laden was the mastermind of the largest and costliest terrorist attack on the mainland territory of

Border Security

Border Security   Reference library

Ana Arias

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,770 words

The implications stemming from a militarized and walled US–Mexico border to economies, people, and ecosystems both north and south

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker   Reference library

Phillip G. Henderson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,160 words

(b. 1924). The forty-first president of the United States, George Herbert Walker Bush was born on 12 June

Bush, George W.

Bush, George W. (1946)   Reference library

Philip Abbott

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,371 words

Born on 6 July 1946 to Barbara and George Herbert Walker Bush, who later was elected the forty-first president

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