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aberration, stellar

aberration, stellar   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
484 words

Because the observer on the earth is often moving across the path of the incoming light from a star, the

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The longstanding abortion conflict in the United States (U.S.) is generally understood as a debate between religious-based morality claims about

abortion/anti-abortion conflict

abortion/anti-abortion conflict   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

The U.S. Supreme Court's 1973 ruling in Roe v. Wade legalized induced abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy “free

academies and learned societies

academies and learned societies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,330 words

“Ci-gît un qui ne fut rien, pas même académicien” (“Here lies someone who was nobody, not even an academician”). This

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia   Reference library

Paul D. Brinkman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Founded in 1812 in Philadelphia—then the commercial and scientific hub of the United States—the Academy of Natural Sciences is America’s

accelerator

accelerator   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
995 words

During the twentieth century physicists developed increasingly powerful artificial means to produce very high-energy particles to transform or disintegrate atoms.

acid and base

acid and base   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
966 words

To bring some order to the natural world, people have long classified substances according to taste and appearance. Among the

acoustics and hearing

acoustics and hearing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,039 words

Acoustics, the science of sound, falls at the intersection of several fields, including mechanics, hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism. Scientific interest

advancement of science, national associations for the

advancement of science, national associations for the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,242 words

During the seventeenth century naturalists and philosophers emphasized scientific communication among themselves and sought venues for public demonstrations of scientific

Advertising, Medical

Advertising, Medical   Reference library

David Herzberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Medical advertising, or the commercial marketing of medical goods and services, has a long history in America despite the health

Aepinus, Franz Ulrich Theodosius

Aepinus, Franz Ulrich Theodosius (1724–1802)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
762 words

(1724–1802), German natural philosopher.

Aepinus's work Tentamen theoriae electricitatis et magnetismi (1759) revolutionized the study of

aeronautics

aeronautics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,173 words

Aerodynamic theories and experiments both in the air and wind tunnels provide the scientific basis for the applied science of

Africa

Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,848 words

The history of science in the diverse continent of Africa is best dealt with under four headings: precolonial science in

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis (1807–1873)   Reference library

Mary Pickard Winsor and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Born in Switzerland, Agassiz was educated at the universities of Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich. He earned degrees from the University

Agricultural Education and Extension

Agricultural Education and Extension   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The system of agricultural education and extension consists of the land-grant colleges with their associated agricultural experiment stations and cooperative

Agricultural Experiment Stations

Agricultural Experiment Stations   Reference library

Barbara A. Kimmelman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

By the 1880s, industrialization and urbanization in America were generating increasing demands for farm products, whereas the plains and western

agricultural sciences

agricultural sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

The agricultural sciences include a wide range of disciplines. At the center are what are often known as production sciences

Agricultural Technology

Agricultural Technology   Reference library

Alan L. Olmstead and Paul W. Rhode

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

In 1790, roughly 90 percent of the U.S. population resided in rural areas and most made their living as

agriculture and technology

agriculture and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

As bread continues to be “the staff of life,” agriculture abounds with emotive meanings, linked with political-economic agendas. These agendas

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) was established in 1862. The first commissioner of agriculture, Isaac Newton, organized the

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