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Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The longstanding abortion conflict in the United States (U.S.) is generally understood as a debate between religious-based morality claims about

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia   Reference library

Paul D. Brinkman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Founded in 1812 in Philadelphia—then the commercial and scientific hub of the United States—the Academy of Natural Sciences is America’s

Advertising, Medical

Advertising, Medical   Reference library

David Herzberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Medical advertising, or the commercial marketing of medical goods and services, has a long history in America despite the health

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis (1807–1873)   Reference library

Mary Pickard Winsor and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Born in Switzerland, Agassiz was educated at the universities of Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich. He earned degrees from the University

Agricultural Education and Extension

Agricultural Education and Extension   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The system of agricultural education and extension consists of the land-grant colleges with their associated agricultural experiment stations and cooperative

Agricultural Experiment Stations

Agricultural Experiment Stations   Reference library

Barbara A. Kimmelman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

By the 1880s, industrialization and urbanization in America were generating increasing demands for farm products, whereas the plains and western

Agricultural Technology

Agricultural Technology   Reference library

Alan L. Olmstead and Paul W. Rhode

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

In 1790, roughly 90 percent of the U.S. population resided in rural areas and most made their living as

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) was established in 1862. The first commissioner of agriculture, Isaac Newton, organized the

Airplanes and Air Transport

Airplanes and Air Transport   Reference library

Richard P. Hallion

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The invention of the airplane by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903 fulfilled the ancient dream of human flight. However,

Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse   Reference library

Sarah W. Tracy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Alcohol looms large in American history, and attitudes toward it have been linked to myriad reformist causes; reflected many social

Alvarez, Luis Walter

Alvarez, Luis Walter (1911–1988)   Reference library

Catherine Westfall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Alvarez, whose family had roots in Spain as well as Ireland, was born in San Francisco, California. Thanks to the

Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia   Reference library

Jesse F. Ballenger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

In contemporary medicine, dementia denotes a clinical syndrome involving the significant deterioration of cognitive abilities such as memory, language, and

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Association for the Advancement of Science   Reference library

Sally Gregory Kohlstedt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) was founded in 1848 to facilitate communication among scientists and to

American Association for the History of Medicine

American Association for the History of Medicine   Reference library

Christopher Crenner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The American Association for the History of Medicine (AAHM) is the principal academic society for the history of medicine in

American Institute of Physics

American Institute of Physics   Reference library

H. Frederick Dylla and R. Joseph Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) is a not-for-profit umbrella organization comprising 10 Member Societies—leading professional societies in physics and

American Medical Association

American Medical Association   Reference library

Elizabeth Toon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The American Medical Association (AMA) was formed in 1847 by elite physicians hoping to improve the stature of their profession.

American Museum of Natural History

American Museum of Natural History   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Founded in New York City in 1869 at the initiative of Albert Smith Bickmore, a Harvard-trained zoologist, the American Museum

American Philosophical Society

American Philosophical Society   Reference library

Simon Baatz and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Benjamin Franklin organized the American Philosophical Society (APS) in 1743, but failure to attract wider support led to its

American System of Manufactures

American System of Manufactures   Reference library

Lindy Biggs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

American manufacturers stole the show at London’s 1851 Crystal Palace Exposition. Several American products especially impressed the British, among them

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis   Reference library

Ruth Schwartz Cowan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Amniocentesis literally means “to prick the amnion.” As a medical procedure, it was first developed in the 1930s to ease

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