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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,732 words
Illustration(s):
2

This entry comprises two articles. The introductory article provides a discussion of the origins and phylogeny of HIV; the companion

Adaptation

Adaptation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Adaptation refers to the many properties of organisms that enable those organisms to stay alive and reproduce. Adaptation is one

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

This entry comprises two articles. The first article provides an account of the times and places of earliest centers of

Alarm Calls

Alarm Calls   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Alarm calls are highly conspicuous vocalizations given by animals when they encounter a predator. In some bird species, alarm calls

Algae

Algae   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

What are algae? Such a simple question, but there is no simple answer. Algae are important, ubiquitous, and diverse; they

Alloparental Care

Alloparental Care   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Alloparental care is parentlike behavior that is typically performed by individuals that are not the parent of the recipient. The

Altruism

Altruism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Altruism is a form of cooperation (i.e., an act that enhances the fitness of others), but it is distinguished from

Amphibians

Amphibians   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,277 words
Illustration(s):
4

Amphibians are named for their two-phased life consisting of larva and adult. Typically the larva is aquatic and metamorphoses into

Ancient DNA

Ancient DNA   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

The first recovery of DNA from preserved biological remains dates to 1984, when Russ Higuchi and his colleagues isolated

Animals

Animals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,082 words
Illustration(s):
3

The Metazoa (equals animals) is one of the great kingdoms of life. Estimates of the current numbers of living animal

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
8,300 words
Illustration(s):
1

This entry comprises three articles:

The first article

Apoptosis

Apoptosis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,330 words
Illustration(s):
2

Apoptosis, programmed or physiological cell death, is an active self-killing process of cells that regulates cell number and tissue architecture,

Archaeological Inference

Archaeological Inference   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

The earliest archaeological sites on earth, dating to around the same time as the earliest fossils of the genus Homo

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,903 words
Illustration(s):
2

This entry comprises two articles. The introductory article is a wide-ranging overview of art in human prehistory that discusses its

Arthropods

Arthropods   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Arthropods (hexapods, myriapods, crustaceans, and chelicerates) are triploblastic Metazoa characterized by a segmented, hardened, chitinous cuticular exoskeleton and paired, jointed

Artificial Life

Artificial Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Evolution in nature is characterized by many levels of hierarchy, including the gene, the individual, the population, and the ecosystem.

Artificial Selection

Artificial Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

The term “artificial selection” is generally applied to situations in which humans deliberately mold the features of another species by

Assortative Mating

Assortative Mating   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Assortative mating may be defined as mating based on similarity or difference between the characteristics of the partners. Positive assortative

Atavisms

Atavisms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

Atavisms are the reappearances in individual members of a species of characters once possessed by all the members of an

Bacteria and Archaea

Bacteria and Archaea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,133 words
Illustration(s):
2

Although they are generally much smaller than can be distinguished by the human eye, microbes are almost everywhere: from rocks

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