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Acontius, Jacobus

Acontius, Jacobus (1520–1567)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
543 words

(also Jacob; Ital, Giacomo Aconcio; c.1520–1567), one of the most influential proponents of the idea of toleration

Acquaviva, Claudio

Acquaviva, Claudio (1543–1615)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
570 words

(Lat., Aquaviva; 1543–1615), fifth general of the Society of Jesus, 1581–1615.

A younger son of the Neapolitan duke

Acronius, Ruardus

Acronius, Ruardus (1611)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
593 words

(d. 1611), prominent theologian in the Netherlands and defender of the Reformed faith.

Before joining ranks with the Reformation

Acts of Supremacy

Acts of Supremacy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
686 words

By giving control of the English church to the monarch, the Act of Supremacy of 1534 (26 Henry VIII,

Acts of Uniformity

Acts of Uniformity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
668 words

These acts represent the successive efforts of Edward VI and Elizabeth I to impose a standardized form of Protestant worship

Adiaphora

Adiaphora   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,370 words

A concept derived from the Stoics, adiaphora denotes conditions in life that are neither virtues nor vices and thus tend

Admonition Controversy

Admonition Controversy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
611 words

A catchall term for the first large-scale debate about the government of the church in post-Reformation England, the Admonition Controversy

Adrian VI

Adrian VI (1454–1523)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
757 words

(born Adriaan Floriszoon Dedel; 1454–1523), Louvain theologian, administrator in Spain, and pope (1522–1523).

Born in Utrecht,

Aepinus, Johannes

Aepinus, Johannes (1499–1553)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
361 words

(Ger., Hoeck; 1499–1553), north German Lutheran educator, preacher, and controversial theologian.

Aepinus was born in the Saxon town of

Agricola, Georgius

Agricola, Georgius (1494–1555)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
676 words

(Ger., Georg Bauer; 1494–1555), German humanist and scientist.

Born in Saxony, he entered the University of Leipzig in 1514

Agricola, Johann

Agricola, Johann (1492?–1566)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
742 words

(Ger., Schneider; 1492?–1566), influential German reformer in Wittenberg, Eisleben, and Berlin; Luther's adversary in the antinomian controversy; called Magister

Agricola, Michael

Agricola, Michael (1510–1557)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,009 words

(1510–1557), Finnish reformer and bishop in Turku (Åbo).

Born in the south of Finland, he came to Turku

Agricola, Stephan

Agricola, Stephan (1491–1547)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
459 words

(also Castenpaur, Kastenbauer; 1491–1547), German Augustinian monk and Lutheran convert active as a preacher, writer, and translator.

Born in

Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius

Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius (1486–1535)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
862 words

(also Agrippa von Nettesheim; 1486–1535), German humanist and occultist.

Born in Cologne, he matriculated at the local university

Alber, Erasmus

Alber, Erasmus (1500?–1553)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
302 words

(1500?–1553), Lutheran pastor, reformer, hymnist, poet, and writer.

Following Latin school, Alber studied at Mainz, then at Wittenberg

Alber, Matthäus

Alber, Matthäus (1495–1570)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
608 words

(1495–1570), reformer of Reutlingen, an imperial city of southwestern Germany.

He came from a once wealthy middle-class

Albert of Brandenburg

Albert of Brandenburg (1490–1545)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
796 words

(1490–1545), elector of the Holy Roman Empire, archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, and administrator of Halberstadt.

He was

Albert VII of Austria

Albert VII of Austria (1559–1621)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,030 words

(also Albert the Pious; 1559–1621), governor-general and then sovereign ruler of the Netherlands.

Son of Emperor Maximilian II and

Alchemy

Alchemy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,006 words

That alchemy reached its apogee during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries raises interesting questions. How could an occult science predicated

Aleandro, Girolamo

Aleandro, Girolamo (1480–1542)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
962 words

(1480–1542), Italian humanist, papal diplomat, and cardinal.

Born of reportedly noble lineage at Motta di Livenza in the

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