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Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

The destruction of Jerusalem in 70 c.e. at the end of the Jewish Revolt was a watershed event in the

Aging, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Aging, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

April Pudsey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,473 words

The demographic dynamics of the ancient world were such that overall average mortality and fertility rates were very high, in

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Oded Borowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,683 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “agriculture” pertains to the cultivation of the soil in order to produce food and other useful and appreciated

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

Edward F. Maher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,492 words

Animal exploitation was practiced by those who lived in urban centers, satellite towns, rural villages, fortified strongholds, and coastal ports.

Antioch on the Orontes

Antioch on the Orontes   Reference library

Andrea U. De Giorgi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,480 words

In the 1930s the Antioch excavations conducted by Princeton University and other institutions produced a remarkable wealth of finds that

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

The mound of ancient Arad is located at the southern slope of the Judean Hills, facing the Beersheba Valley. This

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

“Aram-Damascus” is a compound name used only in some biblical texts as a designation for the most important Aramean city-state

Art, Bronze and Iron Age

Art, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Izak Cornelius

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,451 words
Illustration(s):
3

Objects discovered in archaeological excavations in the southern Levant (Israel/Palestine, the Holy Land) identified as “art” are discussed. The first

Art, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Art, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Achim Lichtenberger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,440 words
Illustration(s):
6

The modern term “art” in the context of materiality describes the products of human activity in creating objects that in

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

The site of Tel Ashdod is located in the industrial zone south of the modern city of Ashdod (3.7 miles

Ashkelon

Ashkelon   Reference library

Adam J. Aja

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,734 words
Illustration(s):
3

Ashkelon is a 148.3 acre (60 ha) mound located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The site was founded

Bar Kokhba Caves

Bar Kokhba Caves   Reference library

Boaz Zissu and Amos Kloner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,899 words

The Bar Kokhba Revolt (132–135/6 c.e.) was one of the most disastrous events in the history of the Jewish

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

The site of Beersheba is famous for its connection with the biblical patriarchs Abraham (Gen 21:14–33, 22:19),

Beth-Shean, Bronze and Iron Age

Beth-Shean, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Nava Panitz-Cohen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,048 words

Rabbi Shimon ben Laqish said of the Garden of Eden, “If it is in Eretz Israel, then Beth-Shean is its

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

Settled over Tel Beth-Shean (Tel el-Husn, the “Fortress Mound”), at the southern bank of Harod Stream that bisects Beth-Shean Valley,

Beth-Shemesh

Beth-Shemesh   Reference library

Dale W. Manor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,871 words

Beth-Shemesh is a 7 acre (2.8 ha) site located near the northeastern edge of the Shephelah on a rise just

Bethel

Bethel   Reference library

Aaron Greener

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,328 words

The site of ancient Bethel (Hebrew “house of [the God] El”) is identified within the modern village of Baytīn, approximately

Bethlehem

Bethlehem   Reference library

Kay Prag

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,327 words

The name “Bethlehem” means “house of meat” (Arabic) or “house of bread” (Hebrew) and is possibly derived from the deities

Bible and Historical Geography

Bible and Historical Geography   Reference library

Yigal Levin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,758 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “historical geography” is used in different ways by members of different scholarly disciplines. To the geographer, especially the

Caesarea

Caesarea   Reference library

Joseph Patrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

Caesarea was founded by King Herod the Great (r. 37–4 b.c.e.) in the years 22–10 b.c.e. on the Mediterranean

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