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abacus

abacus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
230 words

Ancient calculating instrument in which numbers and operations (especially adding) are represented by the numbers and positions of pebbles or

abnormal

abnormal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
60 words

‘Abnormal’ has richer meanings than ‘unusual’. Its meanings depend very much on context. In clinical medicine, and psychology, abnormal states

abreaction

abreaction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
78 words

A recalling or re-experiencing of stressful or disturbing situations or events which appear to have precipitated a neurosis. During the

acceleration

acceleration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
124 words

Acceleration of the body is sensed in the inner ear by the otoliths, small weights of calcium carbonate suspended on

access consciousness

access consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,400 words

The term ‘access consciousness’ was introduced by Ned Block to capture a functional notion of consciousness. In Block's original formulation,

accident proneness

accident proneness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,851 words

Accident proneness is a deceptively easy term. We all know what it means but we do not all mean the

accommodation (of the eye)

accommodation (of the eye)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
197 words

The lens in the eye of land-living vertebrates focuses by changing the curvature of its surface, a process known as

acetylcholine

acetylcholine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
40 words

An important neurotransmitter, liberated at nerve endings, that transmits nervous impulses to muscles or to other nerve cells. Once

achromatopsia, cerebral

achromatopsia, cerebral   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,500 words

Cerebral achromatopsia is a type of acquired colour blindness in which it is not possible to perceive colours, correctly name

acquaintance

acquaintance   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,663 words

Acquaintance is an intimate way of being in a subject's perspective.

In every familiar case, a conscious subject has a

ACT‐R architecture

ACT‐R architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

ACT‐R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) is an architecture of cognition created by John Anderson in 1991 (Anderson

action, philosophical perspectives

action, philosophical perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,687 words

Until quite recently, the phenomenology of agency received surprisingly little attention from action theorists, theorists of consciousness, and epistemologists alike.

action, scientific perspectives

action, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,815 words
Illustration(s):
1

A number of recent studies have suggested that, in healthy subjects, the predicted sensory consequences of movement are available to

addiction

addiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,709 words

For most people the concept of drug addiction is dominated by images of physical and mental degradation brought about by

Adler, Alfred

Adler, Alfred (1870–1937)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,385 words

(1870–1937).

Founder of the School of Individual Psychology. He was born in Vienna, and qualified in medicine in

adrenaline

adrenaline (epinephrine)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
66 words

One of the two main hormones released by the medulla of the adrenal gland, the other being the related noradrenaline.

Adrian, Edgar Douglas

Adrian, Edgar Douglas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,172 words
Illustration(s):
1

1st Baron Adrian (1889–1977). Adrian was born in London and educated at Westminster School, where he became a

aesthetic experience

aesthetic experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,784 words

Aesthetic experience is a common and important part of our lives. Yet it is puzzling, and there are many questions

aesthetics

aesthetics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,054 words

Derived from the Greek verb aesthanesthai (to perceive), the term ‘aesthetic’ was until fairly recently used in connection with the

aesthetics: some psychological approaches

aesthetics: some psychological approaches   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,835 words

There are five main ways in which psychological approaches are made to visual aesthetics. First, there is the use

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