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Academies

Academies   Reference library

J. M. Opal

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

As vehicles for Enlightenment ideas about human potential and social progress, academies played a vital role in the cultural and

Adams, Abigail Smith

Adams, Abigail Smith (1744–1818)   Reference library

Rosemarie Zagarri

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Abigail Smith Adams is best known as the wife of the second president of the United States, John Adams, and

Adams, John

Adams, John (1735–1826)   Reference library

Richard Alan Ryerson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

It is commonly understood among scholars of eighteenth-century British America—if not by the early twenty-first-century American public—that the Revolution and

Adams, John Quincy

Adams, John Quincy (1767–1848)   Reference library

Gary V. Wood

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States, was a statesman, diplomat, and scholar, whose ideas about politics

Adams, Samuel

Adams, Samuel (1722–1803)   Reference library

John K. Alexander

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Like other leaders of the American Enlightenment, Samuel Adams revered classical writings and the writings of English thinkers. And like

Addison, Alexander

Addison, Alexander (1759–1807)   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Davis

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Addison represents the sometimes complex and fluid views of republicanism during the early national period. He and his DemocraticRepublican opponents

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

John Saillant

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

A number of African American authors saw antislavery and equalitarian elements within the ideas and values of the Enlightenment and

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry   Reference library

J. L. Anderson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Agriculture and animal husbandry was a fertile field of inquiry in the American Enlightenment. Many innovators applied science to farming

Aitken, Robert

Aitken, Robert (1735–1802)   Reference library

Mark G. Spencer

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Born in Dalkeith, Scotland, Aitken pursued various jobs in the book trades in Edinburgh and Paisley before migrating, in 1771

Alden, Timothy, Jr.

Alden, Timothy, Jr. (1771–1839)   Reference library

Jonathan E. Helmreich

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Timothy Alden, Jr., founded Alleghany College (so spelled until 1833) in 1815 in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He was its

Alexander, Archibald

Alexander, Archibald (1772–1851)   Reference library

James Moorhead

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Archibald Alexander was born near Lexington, Virginia, the third child of farmers of Scots-Irish descent. Educated at Liberty Hall Academy

Alison, Francis

Alison, Francis (1705–79)   Reference library

John W. Clarke, Jr.

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Francis Alison was born in 1705 in the county of Donegal, Ulster, Ireland. He began his formal education at the

Allen, Ethan

Allen, Ethan (1738–89)   Reference library

Willard Sterne Randall

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Ethan Allen, frontier revolutionary, political theorist, and author of the first published American deistic work, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut,

Allen, John

Allen, John   Reference library

Jose R. Torre

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Born in England, John Allen was a draper, Baptist minister, and political radical who immigrated to the United States in

Allston, Washington

Allston, Washington (1779–1843)   Reference library

David Bjelajac

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Washington Allston belonged to a politically conservative group of post-Revolutionary intellectuals who rejected the materialist empiricism, deist scepticism, and republican

Almanacs

Almanacs   Reference library

Matthew J. Shaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

An almanac is an annual publication, usually based around a calendar, containing useful information for the year ahead. They sold

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Academy of Arts and Sciences   Reference library

Gordon E. Kershaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

Writing from France in May 1780, John Adams famously confided to his wife Abigail that “I must study politics

American Company of Comedians

American Company of Comedians   Reference library

Timothy A. Milford

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The American Company of Comedians was one of the first and by far the most famous of the theatrical troupes

American Enlightenment, End of The

American Enlightenment, End of The   Reference library

Peter S. Field

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

The United States came into existence in the Enlightenment. Its political culture is particularly and uniquely associated with the Age

American Philosophical Society

American Philosophical Society   Reference library

George W. Boudreau

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

“The first Drudgery of Settling new Colonies … is now pretty well over; and there are many in every Province

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