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abdominal muscles

abdominal muscles  

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Four pairs of muscles (the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and the transversus abdominis), often referred to as the stomach muscles, which support and protect the contents of ...
Abdominal wall reconstruction

Abdominal wall reconstruction  

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Indications:• Trauma.• Tumour: Desmoid, Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.• Radiation.• Infection: Gas gangrene, Necrotizing fasciitis.• Iatrogenic: Incisional hernia.• Congenital: Omphalocoele, ...
Abdominoplasty

Abdominoplasty  

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An aesthetic procedure which aims to provide a flatter, narrower abdomen by excising skin and fat excess and addressing rectus divarication, generally by using a lower transverse abdominal ...
Absorbable polymers

Absorbable polymers  

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Synthetic:• Used for sutures and investigated for other devices such as plates and screws (LactoSorb).• One class of polymers used is the alphahydroxy acids including L-lactic acid, glycolic acid ...
Accutane

Accutane  

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Isotretinoin. The synthetic retinoid derivative 13-cis-retinoic acid (Accutane) used for severe Acne vulgaris. The dose is 1 mg/kg body weight for an initial 4–5-month course of therapy. It reduces ...
Acrochordon

Acrochordon  

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• Common papillomatous lesion occurring in middle adult life.• Multiple, fleshy, skin-coloured tags.• Occur mainly on neck, upper chest and axilla.• The only symptoms relate to local irritation.• ...
Acrosyndactyly

Acrosyndactyly  

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• One of the Congenital hand anomalies.• Fusion of digits distally.• Mainly sporadic, non-hereditary occurrence.• Associated with Constriction ring syndrome.• Bilateral in 50%, but asymmetric.• Also ...
actinic keratosis

actinic keratosis  

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Precancerous epidermal thickening and scaly lesions caused by exposure to solar radiation, occurring especially in fair-skinned people. The occurrence of these lesions is an indication for avoidance ...
Adipofascial flaps

Adipofascial flaps  

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A flap comprised of fascia and overlying fat. Essentially, the same as a fasciocutaneous flap with the skin dissected away from the flap.Anatomy:• Dermal and fascial plexuses exist ...
Adnexal tumours

Adnexal tumours  

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• In adnexal tumours, the relationship between stromal and epithelial components is maintained though distorted to varying degrees.• They are classified by the degree and the direction of ...
Adson's test

Adson's test  

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Adson’s test arm adducted. A test used in the assessment of Thoracic outlet syndrome.• Patient stands with arm adducted against front of trunk. Feel radial pulse.• Extend neck and turn ...
Advancement flaps

Advancement flaps  

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• A local random pattern flap where tissue is advanced to fill an adjacent defect. Examples include• Single pedicle: raised as a square or rectangle with two parallel cuts along ...
Aesthetic unit

Aesthetic unit  

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Gonzalez-Ulloa in 1956 divided the face into regions or units to aid in the planning of reconstruction. Some principles of reconstruction by units are:• Patients wish to look normal.• The ...
Ageing face

Ageing face  

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Chronology:• 30s: redundant eyelid skin, crows feet.• 40s: prominent nasolabial folds, forehead furrows.• 50s: neck rhytids, jowls.• 60s+: skin atrophy with increasing wrinkles.• 30s: redundant ...
Allen's test

Allen's test  

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• To test the integrity of arterial anastomotis between the radial and ulnar side of the hand.• Occlude radial and ulnar artery and empty hand by making a fist.• Release ...
Alloderm

Alloderm  

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An immunologically inert dermis derived from human cadaver.
Alloplasts

Alloplasts  

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An alloplast is a relatively inert foreign body implanted into tissue.Advantages:No donor site morbidity, quick, unlimited supply, can be prefabricated, selected resorption.Classification:• Liquid or ...
Alveolar carcinoma

Alveolar carcinoma  

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See Head and neck cancer.• Third most common site.• Usually over 50 years.• Lower jaw is more common than upper jaw, particularly behind the bicuspid teeth.• Less directly related to ...
Ambiguous genitalia

Ambiguous genitalia  

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See Embryology. In cases of ambiguous genitalia, assign patients sex before the age of 2. Assess by a geneticist and paediatrician. The most common cause is congenital adrenal hyperplasia.Female ...
Amplitude: of tendon excursion

Amplitude: of tendon excursion  

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See Tendon transfers. Donor muscles should have similar excursion to that which is replaced.• Excursion of wrist flexors and extensors is 3 cm, finger extensors is 5 cm, finger flexors ...

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