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ʿAbd al-Wahhab ibn ʿAli al- Subki

ʿAbd al-Wahhab ibn ʿAli al- Subki  

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(a.h. 727/1327 c.e.–a.h. 771/1370 c.e.).Was born and studied in Cairo, moving with his father Taqi al-Din to Damascus in 739/1339. With his father's permission he acted as a qadi ...
Abrogation of Legal Norms (Naskh)

Abrogation of Legal Norms (Naskh)  

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Abrogation, in Arabic naskh or al-nāsikh wa al-mansūkh, “the abrogating and the abrogated,” is a term for theories dealing with apparent conflict between different elements of revelation in Islam.The ...
Abu al-Khattab Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al- Kalwadhani

Abu al-Khattab Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al- Kalwadhani  

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(a.h. 432 510 c.e.–a.h. 1050/1116 c.e.). Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al-Kalwadhani Abu al-Khattab was one of the renowned scholars of eleventh-century Baghdad, who played major roles in crystallizing the school ...
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAli ibn Ismaʿil al-Shashi Qaffal

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAli ibn Ismaʿil al-Shashi Qaffal  

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(a.h. 291/904 c.e.–365/976 c.e.).A leading early Shafiʿi jurist credited with spreading the Shafiʿi school in Transoxania displacing the previously prevalent Hanbali school, al-Qaffal was born in ...
Abu Hamid Muhammad Ghazali

Abu Hamid Muhammad Ghazali  

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(a.h. 450/1058 c.e.–a.h. 505/1111 c.e.).Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, celebrated Muslim scholar, held a prestigious professorship in Shafiʿi law in the colleges of Baghdad and Nishapur (Persia). He ...
Abu Ibrahim Ismaʿil ibn Yahya al- Muzani

Abu Ibrahim Ismaʿil ibn Yahya al- Muzani  

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(a.h. 175/791 c.e.–a.h. 264/878 c.e.).Jurist and prominent student of Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafiʿi, founder of the Shafiʿi school of law. Al-Muzani became one of al-Shafiʿi's three principal ...
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi  

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(a.h. 393/1003 c.e.–a.h. 476/1083 c.e.).A leading scholar of the Iraqi branch of the Shafiʿi school of law, al-Shirazi was born in Firuzabad in what is today southern Iran. He ...
Abu Yaʿla, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi

Abu Yaʿla, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi  

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(d. a.h. 458/1066 c.e.). Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi Abu Yaʿla was a famous eleventh-century Hanbali scholar with a long and brilliant academic career in Baghdad. For about three ...
Academics

Academics  

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The formal teaching of law in the United States has passed from individual attorneys acting as masters to their apprentices, through part-time attorneys acting as schoolmasters, to full-time ...
Accessory and Principal in Chinese Law

Accessory and Principal in Chinese Law  

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The penal liability for offenses committed by two or more persons was graduated in classical Chinese law by the degree of contribution to the formation of criminal intent. One person ...
Acknowledgment (Avowal; Iqrār)

Acknowledgment (Avowal; Iqrār)  

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Iqrār is an acknowledgment or recognition of rights in judicial or extrajudicial matters. It is one kind of legal evidence, which occurs during a legal procedure when the defendant recognizes ...
Administrative Agencies

Administrative Agencies  

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In even the most rudimentary governmental structure, executive power—the power to implement a law enacted by the legislature—cannot be exercised by a single person. The president cannot personally ...
Administrative Decrees of the Political Authorities (Qānūn)

Administrative Decrees of the Political Authorities (Qānūn)  

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In the Islamic legal and political context, qānūn originally referred to administrative decrees of political authorities, such as tax regulations, and later came to mean state codes or secular law ...
African customary law

African customary law  

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This useful, albeit disputed, term denotes a body of largely unwritten laws that have been derived from social practices regarded as obligatory by the communities concerned. The account below is ...
Agricultural Contracts and Sharecropping in Islamic Law

Agricultural Contracts and Sharecropping in Islamic Law  

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Agricultural contracts in Islamic law can be best viewed on the basis of the idea that a number of elements contribute to the production of crops, such as land, water ...
Ahmad ibn ʿUMAR Ibn Surayj

Ahmad ibn ʿUMAR Ibn Surayj  

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(a.h. 249/863 or 864 c.e.–a.h. 306/918 c.e.).Ahmad ibn ʿUmar Ibn Surayj was a prominent jurist of the Shafiʿi school of law. He studied in Baghdad with al-Anmati, a student ...
Ahmad ibn Yahya al- Tilimsani al- Wansharisi

Ahmad ibn Yahya al- Tilimsani al- Wansharisi  

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(a.h. 834/1430 c.e.–a.h. 914/1508 c.e.).Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahid al-Wansharisi was a Berber Muslim jurist, born in the Oursenis (Arabic Wansharis, hence his name), a mountain ...
Ancient Greek Law

Ancient Greek Law  

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[This entry contains six subentries, an overview and historical survey and discussion of sources, origins, the archaic period, Hellenistic law, and history of scholarship. For discussion of Greek law ...
Ancient Near Eastern Law

Ancient Near Eastern Law  

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The ancient Near East is what historians call the area now known as the Middle East before its conquest by Alexander the Great. Its recorded history covers some three thousand ...
Andreas (André Tiraqueau) Tiraquellus

Andreas (André Tiraqueau) Tiraquellus  

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(1488–1558).Tiraquellus was a humanistically trained and practical law-oriented French judge and professor of law. He came from the French aristocracy, studied in Poitiers, and was first a judge for ...

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