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ʿAbd al-Wahhab ibn ʿAli al- Subki

ʿAbd al-Wahhab ibn ʿAli al- Subki  

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(a.h. 727/1327 c.e.–a.h. 771/1370 c.e.).Was born and studied in Cairo, moving with his father Taqi al-Din to Damascus in 739/1339. With his father's permission he acted as a qadi ...
Abortion Politics and Policy

Abortion Politics and Policy   Reference library

Daniel K. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,858 words

Abortion policy in the United States has been contentious for decades and continues to polarize the American electorate. The controversy

Abrams v. United States

Abrams v. United States   Reference library

Norman L. Rosenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
343 words

This 1919 Supreme Court case from the World War I era involved Russian-born anarchists convicted under the 1918 Sedition Act

Abrogation of Legal Norms (Naskh)

Abrogation of Legal Norms (Naskh)  

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Abrogation, in Arabic naskh or al-nāsikh wa al-mansūkh, “the abrogating and the abrogated,” is a term for theories dealing with apparent conflict between different elements of revelation in Islam.The ...
Abu al-Khattab Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al- Kalwadhani

Abu al-Khattab Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al- Kalwadhani  

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(a.h. 432 510 c.e.–a.h. 1050/1116 c.e.). Mahfuz ibn Ahmad al-Kalwadhani Abu al-Khattab was one of the renowned scholars of eleventh-century Baghdad, who played major roles in crystallizing the school ...
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAli ibn Ismaʿil al-Shashi Qaffal

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAli ibn Ismaʿil al-Shashi Qaffal  

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(a.h. 291/904 c.e.–365/976 c.e.).A leading early Shafiʿi jurist credited with spreading the Shafiʿi school in Transoxania displacing the previously prevalent Hanbali school, al-Qaffal was born in ...
Abu Hamid Muhammad Ghazali

Abu Hamid Muhammad Ghazali  

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(a.h. 450/1058 c.e.–a.h. 505/1111 c.e.).Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, celebrated Muslim scholar, held a prestigious professorship in Shafiʿi law in the colleges of Baghdad and Nishapur (Persia). He ...
Abu Ibrahim Ismaʿil ibn Yahya al- Muzani

Abu Ibrahim Ismaʿil ibn Yahya al- Muzani  

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(a.h. 175/791 c.e.–a.h. 264/878 c.e.).Jurist and prominent student of Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafiʿi, founder of the Shafiʿi school of law. Al-Muzani became one of al-Shafiʿi's three principal ...
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi  

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(a.h. 393/1003 c.e.–a.h. 476/1083 c.e.).A leading scholar of the Iraqi branch of the Shafiʿi school of law, al-Shirazi was born in Firuzabad in what is today southern Iran. He ...
Abu Yaʿla, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi

Abu Yaʿla, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi  

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(d. a.h. 458/1066 c.e.). Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Farraʾ al-Baghdadi Abu Yaʿla was a famous eleventh-century Hanbali scholar with a long and brilliant academic career in Baghdad. For about three ...
Academics

Academics  

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The formal teaching of law in the United States has passed from individual attorneys acting as masters to their apprentices, through part-time attorneys acting as schoolmasters, to full-time ...
Accessory and Principal in Chinese Law

Accessory and Principal in Chinese Law  

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The penal liability for offenses committed by two or more persons was graduated in classical Chinese law by the degree of contribution to the formation of criminal intent. One person ...
Acknowledgment (Avowal; Iqrār)

Acknowledgment (Avowal; Iqrār)  

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Iqrār is an acknowledgment or recognition of rights in judicial or extrajudicial matters. It is one kind of legal evidence, which occurs during a legal procedure when the defendant recognizes ...
Adams, John

Adams, John   Reference library

Stuart Leibiger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
823 words

(1759–1826) served as a continental congressman, diplomat, vice president (1789–1797), and president

Adams, John Quincy

Adams, John Quincy   Reference library

Leonard L. Richards

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
557 words

(1767–1848), sixth president of the United States. Born in Quincy, Massachusetts, the son of John Adams and Abigail

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital   Reference library

James W. Ely Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
338 words

During the early twentieth century, Progressives sought to ameliorate the consequences of industrialization by enacting minimum wage laws. Conservatives and

Administrative Agencies

Administrative Agencies  

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In even the most rudimentary governmental structure, executive power—the power to implement a law enacted by the legislature—cannot be exercised by a single person. The president cannot personally ...
Administrative Decrees of the Political Authorities (Qānūn)

Administrative Decrees of the Political Authorities (Qānūn)  

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In the Islamic legal and political context, qānūn originally referred to administrative decrees of political authorities, such as tax regulations, and later came to mean state codes or secular law ...
Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

The term “administrative state” entered the political science literature in Dwight Waldo’s influential book of the same name in 1948

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action   Reference library

Anders Walker, Matthew Dallek, and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,355 words

This entry contains two subentries: Legal Aspects; and Politics of Affirmative Action.

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