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Aagje Deken

Aagje Deken  

(1741–1804), Dutch woman of letters. Deken was the author, in close collaboration with Betje Wolff-Bekker, of closely observed epistolary novels in Dutch, among them De Historie van Mejuffrouw Sara ...
agrarianism

agrarianism  

Agrarian societies are those which combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life.
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
Alberto Radicati di Passerano

Alberto Radicati di Passerano  

(1698– 1737), Italian-born religious controversialist and author. Alberto Radicati di Passerano, who was born in 1698 either at Passerano or Casalborgone, of an old Piedmontese noble family, did not ...
Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev

Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev  

(1749–1802), Russian poet and reformist. The founder of the Russian intelligentsia's radical tradition, Radishchev was a writer and poet whose “Ode to Liberty” inspired the Decembrists when they rose ...
Anatomy Act

Anatomy Act  

Of 1832, enabling the unclaimed bodies of institutionalized paupers to be sold to anatomy schools for dissection. Traditionally, the law had provided surgeons with the remains of executed murderers ...
Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece  

For a long time ancient Greece was viewed as one component of a whole termed “antiquity,” a period largely dominated by Rome. It only acquired individuality and autonomy during the ...
Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome  

Ancient Rome continued to be a major reference point for the culture of the Enlightenment, due notably to the central role played by Latin. There was a gradual decline in ...
ancients and moderns

ancients and moderns  

Medieval readers and writers were strongly aware of their relationship to the past. They viewed classical learning as their inheritance and assumed the responsibility of safeguarding and transmitting ...
Anders Chydenius

Anders Chydenius  

(1729–1803), Scandinavian statesman and writer on political economy. Anders Chydenius was an important political figure and political writer, especially in the 1760s. He was a priest at that time and ...
Andrés Bello

Andrés Bello  

(1781–1865), Venezuelan essayist, philologist, linguist, jurist, literary critic, professor, statesman, poet, and translator. Andrés Bello was born in Caracas, Venezuela, on 29 November 1781. He is ...
Anna Maria Lenngren

Anna Maria Lenngren  

(1754–1817), Swedish poet and woman of letters. Lenngren was born Anna Maria Malmstedt in the university town of Uppsala. Her father Malmstedt, a Latin professor, gave her a classical education ...
Anthonie van Dale

Anthonie van Dale  

(1638–1708), Dutch Mennonite doctor and the author of De Oraculis. Van Dale was born into a Mennonite family in Haarlem. He studied medicine at Leiden; he wrote a dissertation, De ...
Anti-Jacobin review and newspaper

Anti-Jacobin review and newspaper  

The Anti-Jacobin Review was founded in 1798 to take the place of the short-lived Anti-Jacobin weekly newspaper. The latter was the brainchild of George Canning, though the chosen editor was ...
antiquarianism

antiquarianism  

[Th]An intellectual tradition of enquiry that developed in Europe in the 16th and early 17th centuries ad as a result of new interests in nature, antiquity, the Renaissance of learning, and the ...
Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de

Aranda, Pedro Pablo, Conde de  

(1719–1798), Spanish official. Aranda, a grandee from one of Spain's great families, was originally intended for a career in the Roman Catholic Church, and studied at the seminary of Bologna ...
Ashley family

Ashley family  

English musicians and impresarios active in London and in the provinces 1780–1830. John Ashley (1734–1805), a bassoonist, was assistant conductor to Joah Bates (1741–99) at the 1784 Handel ...
Association for the Preservation of Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers

Association for the Preservation of Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers  

Founded in London by John Reeves on 20 November 1792, sought to stimulate demonstrations of loyalism throughout the country as an antidote to the escalation of popular radicalism.The first ...
August Ludwig Schlözer

August Ludwig Schlözer  

(1735–1809), German historian and statistician. Born in Gaggstedt in the county of Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, Schlözer studied theology and Oriental languages at the universities of Wittenberg and ...
Augustin Calmet

Augustin Calmet  

(1672–1757), French Benedictine monk and scholar. From a modest background, Antoine Calmet began his education at the college of Breuil run by the Benedictine monks of Saint-Vanne. After attending ...

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