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Achilles tendon

Achilles tendon   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
421 words
Illustration(s):
1

A large tendon at the back of the ankle which connects the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) to the heel

adductor muscles

adductor muscles   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
148 words
Illustration(s):
1

A muscle that moves a body part (e.g. an arm or leg) towards the midline of the body. A strain

agility

agility   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
178 words
Illustration(s):
1

Agility is the ability to change body position rapidly and accurately without losing balance. It is important in sports and

alcohol

alcohol   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
784 words
Illustration(s):
1

Alcohol (or more precisely ethanol) is a colourless, tasteless, flammable liquid, formed during the fermentation of yeasts. In medicine, it

alimentary canal

alimentary canal   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
52 words
Illustration(s):
1

A tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus (see figure). It has regions specialized for ingestion (the mouth

amino acids

amino acids   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
118 words
Illustration(s):
1

The basic units from which proteins are made. Chemically compounds with an amino group (−NH2) and a carboxyl

arm curl

arm curl   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
134 words
Illustration(s):
1

An exercise (see figure) performed with free-weights to improve arm muscles (biceps and brachialis) and shoulder muscles (deltoids).

▪ Stand

arm sprints

arm sprints   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
85 words
Illustration(s):
1

Arm sprints are similar to bench stepping, but the hands are used rather than the feet. They are used for

ascorbic acid

ascorbic acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
62 words
Illustration(s):
1

Vitamin C, l‐xyloascorbic acid, to distinguish it from the isomer d‐araboascorbic acid (isoascorbic acid or erythorbic acid),

ATP

ATP   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
54 words
Illustration(s):
1

Adenosine triphosphate, the coenzyme that acts as an intermediate between energy-yielding (catabolic) metabolism (the oxidation of metabolic fuels) and energy

backache

backache   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
447 words
Illustration(s):
1

Backache is second only to the common cold as a reason for absence from work in the United Kingdom and

back extension

back extension   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
162 words
Illustration(s):
1

A back strengthening exercise, usually performed on an extension bench specially designed to support the hips and which fixes the

beef

beef   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
92 words
Illustration(s):
1

Flesh of the ox (Bos taurus); flesh from young calves is veal. Depending on the joint or

bench press

bench press   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
132 words
Illustration(s):
1

A relatively simple weightlifting exercise for toning up arm muscles (particularly the triceps brachii), the anterior deltoids in the shoulder,

bent arm hang

bent arm hang   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
119 words
Illustration(s):
1

The ability to maintain a bent arm position while hanging from a bar. It is used to test the muscular

bent arm pullover

bent arm pullover   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
77 words
Illustration(s):
1

A weight training exercise for the chest, shoulder and arm extensors (see figure).

▪ Lie on a bench so that

bent-over row

bent-over row   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
111 words
Illustration(s):
1

This weight-training exercise simulates a rowing action and strengthens the shoulder muscles and biceps in the arm. It can be

bile salts

bile salts   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
23 words
Illustration(s):
1

Salts of cholic and deoxycholic acid and their glycine and taurine conjugates, secreted in the bile.

Billig's exercise

Billig's exercise   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
128 words
Illustration(s):
1

An exercise which stretches the connective tissue around the pelvis, the hip flexors, and the muscles on the inside of

biotin

biotin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink, Science and technology
Length:
95 words
Illustration(s):
1

A vitamin, sometimes known as vitamin H, required for the synthesis of fatty acids and glucose, among other reactions,

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