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Abbasid

Abbasid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,471 words
Illustration(s):
1

Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,214 words
Illustration(s):
3

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

῾Abd al-Samad

῾Abd al-Samad (b. before 1517)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b. before 1517; fl. c.1535–1600).

Iranian miniature painter, calligrapher and courtier, active also in

Abdülhamid II

Abdülhamid II   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

Abdülhamid II (1842–1918) was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). A profound political and economic crisis

abhaya-mudrā

abhaya-mudrā   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
102 words
Illustration(s):
1

(Skt., gesture of fearlessness).

Iconographic hand gesture (mudrā) whose purpose is to dispel fear and communicate protection, benevolence,

Ablutions

Ablutions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
998 words
Illustration(s):
2

A practice that consists of washing, which introduces the Muslim into the state of ritual purity (ṭuhr) and

Abu Tahir

Abu Tahir   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

[Abu Ṭāhir].

Persian family of potters. The family is sometimes known, somewhat improperly, by the epithet Kashani [al-Kashani, Qashani], which

Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,662 words
Illustration(s):
2

The Acts of the Apostles is the earliest attempt to provide a narrative account of the birth and expansion of

῾Adil Shahi

῾Adil Shahi   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1489 to 1686. I. Introduction. II. Family members.

Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

The destruction of Jerusalem in 70 c.e. at the end of the Jewish Revolt was a watershed event in the

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,152 words
Illustration(s):
2

Country of some 647,500 sq. km in the middle of the steppe and desert zone of Eurasia. It is bounded

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,590 words
Illustration(s):
2

In the nineteenth century Afghanistan emerged as a buffer state between the contending British Indian and tsarist Russian colonial empires.

Africa

Africa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,135 words
Illustration(s):
4

Continent second only to Asia in size with a total area of 29,800,000 sq. km and a total population of

Afshārid Dynasty

Afshārid Dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,147 words
Illustration(s):
1

The Afshārid dynasty (1736–1802) was the ruling house of Iran, founded after the abolition of the Ṣafavid dynasty

Aga Khan

Aga Khan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
706 words
Illustration(s):
1

The Nizārī Ismāʿīlī imams since the time of Ḥasan ʿAlī Shāh (d. 1881) have borne the title Aga

Aghlabid

Aghlabid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

Islamic dynasty that governed Tunisia, Algeria and Sicily from 800 to 909. The province of Ifriqiya, roughly corresponding to

Agra

Agra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,278 words
Illustration(s):
2

City and administrative seat of the district of the same name, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Situated on the Yamuna River

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Oded Borowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,683 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “agriculture” pertains to the cultivation of the soil in order to produce food and other useful and appreciated

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,621 words
Illustration(s):
1

There are thirty-four countries with both significant agricultural sectors and majority Muslim populations. They form a broad band running from

Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud

Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
768 words
Illustration(s):
1

Dr. Mahmoud Ahmadi Nejad (Ahmadinejad) was popularly elected as the sixth President of Iran on June 24, 2005 to serve

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