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9/11

9/11   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
655 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “9/11” is shorthand for the events of 11 September 2001. On that date, four U.S. planes were

Aborigines, Australian

Aborigines, Australian   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

Indigenous occupation of the Australian continent dates back to 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, with full occupation, across all environmental

Abortion

Abortion   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,599 words
Illustration(s):
1

[This entry includes two subentries, an overview and a discussion of abortion in the United States. See also

Advertising

Advertising   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,747 words
Illustration(s):
2

[This entry includes two subentries, an overview of advertising worldwide and a discussion of advertising in the United States.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,324 words
Illustration(s):
1

Afghanistan's location connecting Central Asia with South Asia has affected its history profoundly, as conquerors have invaded it and various

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,264 words
Illustration(s):
1
A poor, mountainous central Asian country which has struggled to find stability, between persistent interference from outside powers on the one hand, and the domestic religiousness of the ... More
African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,925 words
Illustration(s):
3

African American history in the United States constitutes a legacy involving self-determination and struggles for freedom. It is, in part,

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
20,291 words
Illustration(s):
3

[This entry includes seven subentries: See also

AIDS and HIV

AIDS and HIV   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,101 words
Illustration(s):
1

AIDS and HIV are acronyms for “acquired immune deficiency syndrome” and for the “human immunodeficiency virus.” HIV is the virus

Air Transport

Air Transport   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,925 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “transport” customarily includes air transport, land transport, and sea transport, but the first of these categories has existed,

Albania

Albania   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
860 words
Illustration(s):
1

A Balkan country which, in order to evade persistent foreign intervention, became the most isolated European state in the second half of the twentieth century....

Algeria

Algeria   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,120 words
Illustration(s):
3

Algeria has exerted a profound influence upon the course of modern world history in a number of realms. For Europe,

Algeria

Algeria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,027 words
Illustration(s):
1

Africa's second largest country was shaped, first, by French colonial rule, and then by an autocratic regime trying to avert the rise of Islamic fundamentalism....

American Civil War

American Civil War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,573 words
Illustration(s):
3

The American Civil War of 1861–1865 was not a civil war at all, because—unlike the Russian civil war, the Spanish

American Literature

American Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,828 words
Illustration(s):
1

From its colonial beginnings through the nineteenth century, American literature struggled to find a voice independent from Britain, the mother

American Revolution

American Revolution   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,405 words
Illustration(s):
2

The American Revolution began as an internal conflict between Great Britain and its North American colonies. The revolution grew into

American Samoa

American Samoa   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
256 words
Illustration(s):
1
This eastern part of the Pacific islands of Samoa came under US control in 1899. Under the formal government of the US Navy, it remained effectively governed by Samoan chiefs, who rejected ... More
Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,936 words
Illustration(s):
1

Anarchism is known for its diversity. Its accepted varieties range from the egoism of Max Stirner (Johann Kaspar Schmidt

Andorra

Andorra   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
245 words
Illustration(s):
1

A tiny state (468 km2, 180 square miles) in the Pyrenees between France and Spain, whose Constitution is based on a treaty of ...

Anglo-Afghan Wars

Anglo-Afghan Wars   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,793 words
Illustration(s):
1

From the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) to the end of the British Raj in 1947,

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