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Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,315 words
Illustration(s):
3

City in Nordrhein-Westfalia, Germany. It was the birthplace and residence of Charlemagne, ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, and remained associated

Aachen [Aach; Ach; Acha], Hans [Johann; Joan] von

Aachen [Aach; Ach; Acha], Hans [Johann; Joan] von (1552)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,022 words
Illustration(s):
2

(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, 4 March 1615).

German painter and draughtsman, active also

Aalto, Hugo Alvar Henrik

Aalto, Hugo Alvar Henrik (3 Feb 1898)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
136 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b Kuortane, 3 Feb 1898; d Helsinki, 11 May 1976).

Finnish architect and designer. He

Aalto, Hugo Alvar Henrik

Aalto, Hugo Alvar Henrik (1898–1976)   Reference library

Sir Colin St J. Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,619 words
Illustration(s):
1

(see modernism) He set up his practice in 1922, and contributed briefly but with distinction to the

Abaquesne, Masséot

Abaquesne, Masséot (1520)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
155 words
Illustration(s):
1

(before 1520–before 1564).

French potter based in Rouen. Nothing is known of his work prior to the ornamental

Abate [Abbate], Nicolò [Niccolò] dell’

Abate [Abbate], Nicolò [Niccolò] dell’ (1509–12)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,856 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b Modena, 1509–12; d?Fontainebleau, 1571).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was one of the

Abbasid

Abbasid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,471 words
Illustration(s):
1

Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from

Abbey, Edwin Austin

Abbey, Edwin Austin (1 April 1852)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
942 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b Philadelphia, PA, 1 April 1852; d London 1 Aug 1911),

painter, illustrator and muralist

Abbott, Berenice

Abbott, Berenice (17 July 1898)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
695 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b Springfield, OH, 17 July 1898; d 9 Dec 1991),

photographer. Abbott spent a term

῾Abd al-Samad

῾Abd al-Samad (b. before 1517)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

(b. before 1517; fl. c.1535–1600).

Iranian miniature painter, calligrapher and courtier, active also in

Abject

Abject   Reference library

Barbara Creed

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,775 words
Illustration(s):
1

The conventional meaning of abjection signifies “a state of being cast off” or of feeling in a low or debased

Abramovich, Pinchas

Abramovich, Pinchas (1909)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
282 words
Illustration(s):
1

This artist studied at the academy in Kovno (now Kaunas, Lithuania) in 1925; he emigrated to Palestine in 1929 and

Abstract art

Abstract art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

Art form that conveys a visual message by reducing or eliminating representation of nature (termed nonrepresentational) and objects (termed nonobjective).

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
4,848 words
Illustration(s):
2

Term applied to a movement in American painting that flourished in the 1940s and 1950s, sometimes referred to as the

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

Caroline A. Jones

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,787 words
Illustration(s):
2

The art movement known as abstract expressionism was characterized by gestural and/or nonobjective paintings and direct-welded metal sculptures. Also known

Abstraction

Abstraction   Reference library

Lucian Krukowski and Marek Wieczorek

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,697 words
Illustration(s):
2

This entry comprises two essays: Philosophical Perspective Contemporary Perspective

The first offers a philosophical analysis of the modern history of

Abstraction

Abstraction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

In its aesthetic use, the term abstraction refers to a historical style, primarily in the visual arts, in which representational

Abu Tahir

Abu Tahir   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

[Abu Ṭāhir].

Persian family of potters. The family is sometimes known, somewhat improperly, by the epithet Kashani [al-Kashani, Qashani], which

Acanthus

Acanthus   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
387 words
Illustration(s):
1

Ornamental motif based on the leaves of the acanthus plant, an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean area. In various

acanthus

acanthus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
64 words
Illustration(s):
1

Conventionalized representation of the leaf of the Acanthus spinosus plant, found on the lower parts of *Corinthian and *

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